About Me

My photo
Hari Sarvottama Vayu Jeevottama

A very warm welcome to the blog of Madhwa Brahmins community.
We, Madhwa Brahmins are followers of Jagadguru Sriman Madhwacharya. We originally hail from places in Karnataka and the neighboring states of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Our main dialects are Kannada, Tulu, Marathi, Telugu and Konkani.

A brief background of Jagadguru Sri Madhwacharya:

prathamO hanumAn nAma dviteeyO bheema Eva cha |
pUrNaprajna tRuteeyastu bhagavat kAryasAdhakaH ||

As the above shloka from khila vAyustuti explains, Sri Madhwacharya (also known by the names Poornaprajna and Anandateertha) is the third incarnation of Lord MukhyaprAna Vaayu, after Lord Hanuman and Lord Bheemasena. He is the chief proponent of TattvavAda, popularly known as Dvaita. He was born on Vijayadashami day of 1238 CE at Paajaka Kshetra, a small village near Udupi. He is the 22nd commentator on the Brahma sutras of Lord Sri Veda Vyasa.

Kindly note that this blog contains important topics discussed in our Orkut community and some articles on tattvavAda philosophy. All the topics can be found in the BLOG ARCHIVE (right side)

25 September, 2010

Srimad Bhagavadgeeta - Chapter 4

Srimad Bhagavadgeeta - Chapter 4

Chapter 4 - Jnana Yoga


For chapter 1, click HERE
For chapter 2, click HERE

For chapter 3, click HERE


Source:
S. Subba Rau, "The Bhagavad-Gita, Translation and commentaries in English, according to Sri Madhwacharya's bhashyas" Minerva Press, Madras (1906)



In this chapter, a detailed treatment can be found of
(1) nivRutta karma, which has been briefly explained in the previous chapter
(2) Vishnu, who has been shown as the Supreme Being exalted over the other graded series of gods
(3) knowledge revealing Him

It is described here, how with complete resignation one should discharge the fixed duties; what consequences follow the observance or negligence of the course of righteous acts, which was pursued by the ancients.


Verse 4.1


श्री भगवान् उवाच :-
इमं विवस्वतॆ यॊगं प्रॊक्तवान् अहं अव्ययम्
विवस्वान् मनवॆ प्राह मनुः इक्ष्वाकवॆ अब्रवीत् .

ಶ್ರೀ ಭಗವಾನ್ ಉವಾಚ :-
ಇಮಂ ವಿವಸ್ವತೇ ಯೋಗಂ ಪ್ರೋಕ್ತವಾನ್ ಅಹಂ ಅವ್ಯಯಮ್ |
ವಿವಸ್ವಾನ್ ಮನವೇ ಪ್ರಾಹ ಮನುಃ ಇಕ್ಷ್ವಾಕವೇ ಅಬ್ರವೀತ್ || ೪. ||

shree bhagavAn uvAcha :-
imaM vivasvatE yOgaM prOktavAn ahaM avyayam |
vivasvAn manavE prAha manuH ikShvAkavE abraveet || 4.1 ||


I taught this undecaying yoga (about how to discharge one's duties) to Vivasvan (Sun god); he taught it to Manu; and Manu told it to IkshvAku



4.2


एवं परम्पराप्राप्तं इमं राज ऋषयः विदुः
सः कालॆन इह महता यॊगः नष्टः परन्तप .

ಏವಂ ಪರಂಪರಾಪ್ರಾಪ್ತಂ ಇಮಂ ರಾಜ ಋಷಯಃ ವಿದುಃ |
ಸಃ ಕಾಲೇನ ಇಹ ಮಹತಾ ಯೋಗಃ ನಷ್ಟಃ ಪರಂತಪ || ೪. ||

EvaM paraMparAprAptaM imaM rAja RuShayaH viduH |
saH kAlEna iha mahatA yOgaH naShTaH paraMtapa || 4.2 ||


O Parantapa, in this way the kings and royal sages came to know about this Yoga in disciplic succession; then after a long duration of time this Yoga became lost in the world.



4.3


सः एव अहं मया तॆ अद्य यॊगः प्रॊक्तः पुरातनः
भक्तः असि मॆ सखा इति रहस्यं हि एतत् उत्तमम् .

ಸಃ ಏವ ಅಹಂ ಮಯಾ ತೇ ಅದ್ಯ ಯೋಗಃ ಪ್ರೋಕ್ತಃ ಪುರಾತನಃ |
ಭಕ್ತಃ ಅಸಿ ಮೇ ಸಖಾ ಇತಿ ರಹಸ್ಯಂ ಹಿ ಏತತ್ ಉತ್ತಮಮ್ || ೪. ||

saH Eva ahaM mayA tE adya yOgaH prOktaH purAtanaH |
bhaktaH asi mE sakhA cha iti rahasyaM hi Etat uttamam || 4.3 ||


That very yoga of the ancient times, which is indeed the supreme secret, is now being taught to you by Me, because you are My devotee and My friend.



4.4


अर्जुन उवाच :-
अपरं भवतः जन्म परं जन्म विविस्वतः
कथं एतत् विजानीयां त्वं आदौ प्रॊक्तवान् इति .

ಅರ್ಜುನ ಉವಾಚ :-
ಅಪರಂ ಭವತಃ ಜನ್ಮ ಪರಂ ಜನ್ಮ ವಿವಿಸ್ವತಃ |
ಕಥಂ ಏತತ್ ವಿಜಾನೀಯಾಂ ತ್ವಂ ಆದೌ ಪ್ರೋಕ್ತವಾನ್ ಇತಿ || ೪. ||

arjuna uvAcha :-
aparaM bhavataH janma paraM janma vivisvataH |
kathaM Etat vijAneeyAM tvaM Adau prOktavAn iti || 4.4 ||


Arjuna said:
Your birth is recent, whereas Sun god's birth was much earlier; how am I to understand that you did teach him in the ancient time?



4.5


श्री भगवान् उवाच :-
बहूनि मॆ व्यतीतानि जन्मानि तव अर्जुन
तानि अहं वॆद सर्वाणि त्वं वॆत्थ परन्तप .

ಶ್ರೀ ಭಗವಾನ್ ಉವಾಚ :-
ಬಹೂನಿ ಮೇ ವ್ಯತೀತಾನಿ ಜನ್ಮಾನಿ ತವ ಅರ್ಜುನ |
ತಾನಿ ಅಹಂ ವೇದ ಸರ್ವಾಣಿ ತ್ವಂ ವೇತ್ಥ ಪರಂತಪ || ೪. ||

shree bhagavAn uvAcha :-
bahooni mE vyateetAni janmAni tava cha arjuna |
tAni ahaM vEda sarvANi na tvaM vEttha paraMtapa || 4.5 ||


Lord Krishna said:
O Arjuna, many births of Mine and also yours have occurred in the past; I know them all, but you are not, O Parantapa.

Sri Krishna here points out that He knows everything and the other is ignorant, a proof for the fact that Lord and soul are separate.



4.6


अजः अपि सन् अव्ययआत्मा भूतानाम् ईश्वरः अपि सन्
प्रकृतिं स्वाम् अधिष्ठाय सम्भवामि आत्ममायया .

ಅಜಃ ಅಪಿ ಸನ್ ಅವ್ಯಯಾತ್ಮಾ ಭೂತಾನಾಮ್ ಈಶ್ವರಃ ಅಪಿ ಸನ್ |
ಪ್ರಕೃತಿಂ ಸ್ವಾಮ್ ಅಧಿಷ್ಠಾಯ ಸಂಭವಾಮಿ ಆತ್ಮಮಾಯಯಾ || ೪. ||

ajaH api san avyayAtmA bhUtAnAm IshvaraH api san |
prakRutiM svAm adhiShThAya saMbhavAmi AtmamAyayA || 4.6 ||


Although I am unborn and of un-decaying essence, and I am the Supreme Ruler of all beings, standing on My own nature and by My own will and wisdom I manifest Myself to this world. (I surround Myself with material gloom under My control so that people mistake Me as born with a perishable body)



4.7


यदा यदा हि धर्मस्य ग्लानिः भवति भारत
अभ्युत्थानं अधर्मस्य तदा आत्मानं सृजामि अहम् .

ಯದಾ ಯದಾ ಹಿ ಧರ್ಮಸ್ಯ ಗ್ಲಾನಿಃ ಭವತಿ ಭಾರತ |
ಅಭ್ಯುತ್ಥಾನಂ ಅಧರ್ಮಸ್ಯ ತದಾ ಆತ್ಮಾನಂ ಸೃಜಾಮಿ ಅಹಮ್ || ೪. ||

yadA yadA hi dharmasya glAniH bhavati bhArata |
abhyutthAnaM adharmasya tadA AtmAnaM sRujAmi aham || 4.7 ||


Further, though there is no purpose of His own, the appearance of Lord in this world is full of purpose in establishing righteousness and eradicating unrighteousness, and so on. He says:-

O Bharata, whenever there is decline of dharma and triumph or predominance of adharma, then at those times I manifest Myself to this world.



4.8


परित्राणाय साधूनां विनाशाय दुष्कृताम्
धर्म संस्थापन-अर्थाय सम्भवामि युगॆ युगॆ .

ಪರಿತ್ರಾಣಾಯ ಸಾಧೂನಾಂ ವಿನಾಶಾಯ ದುಷ್ಕೃತಾಮ್ |
ಧರ್ಮ ಸಂಸ್ಥಾಪನ-ಅರ್ಥಾಯ ಸಂಭವಾಮಿ ಯುಗೇ ಯುಗೇ || ೪. ||

paritrANAya sAdhUnAM vinAshAya cha duShkRutAm |
dharma saMsthApana-arthAya saMbhavAmi yugE yugE || 4.8 ||


For the protection of the righteous, for the destruction of the evil-doers, and for the purpose of firmly establishing dharma, I appear in every yuga.

(It is possible for the Almighty to accomplish the work of protecting the righteous, without showing Himself to the world; but He appears to the world out of His own supreme pleasure and mercy upon the people and not out of any necessity)



4.9


जन्म कर्म मॆ दिव्यं एवं यः वॆत्ति तत्त्वतः
त्यक्त्वा दॆहं पुनर्जन्म नैति मामॆति सः अर्जुन .

ಜನ್ಮ ಕರ್ಮ ಮೇ ದಿವ್ಯಂ ಏವಂ ಯಃ ವೇತ್ತಿ ತತ್ವತಃ |
ತ್ಯಕ್ತ್ವಾ ದೇಹಂ ಪುನರ್ಜನ್ಮ ನೈತಿ ಮಾಮೇತಿ ಸಃ ಅರ್ಜುನ || ೪. ||

janma karma cha mE divyaM EvaM yaH vEtti tatvataH |
tyaktvA dEhaM punarjanma naiti mAmEti saH arjuna || 4.9 ||


He who thus truly understands the divine birth and action of Mine, after casting away his body, he does not come into birth again; he comes to Me, O Arjuna.



4.10


वीत-राग-भय-क्रॊधाः मन्मया माम् उपाश्रिताः
बहवः ज्ञान-तपसा पूता मत्-भावम् आगताः .१०

ವೀತ-ರಾಗ-ಭಯ-ಕ್ರೋಧಾಃ ಮನ್ಮಯಾ ಮಾಮ್ ಉಪಾಶ್ರಿತಾಃ |
ಬಹವಃ ಜ್ಞಾನ-ತಪಸಾ ಪೂತಾ ಮತ್-ಭಾವಮ್ ಆಗತಾಃ || ೪.೧೦ ||

veeta-rAga-bhaya-krOdhAH manmayA mAm upAshritAH |
bahavaH j~jAna-tapasA pootA mat-bhAvam AgatAH || 4.10 ||


Are there beings who have obtained release by means of such knowledge? Yes there are; the Lord says:

Freed from affection, fear and anger, having seen Me the Supreme, and having sought Me as the asylum, many have become pure with penance of knowledge and attained the state of being with Me.



4.11


यॆ तथा मां प्रपद्यन्तॆ तान् तथैव भजामि अहम्
मम वर्त्मा अनुवर्तन्तॆ मनुष्याः पार्थ सर्वशः .११

ಯೇ ತಥಾ ಮಾಂ ಪ್ರಪದ್ಯಂತೇ ತಾನ್ ತಥೈವ ಭಜಾಮಿ ಅಹಮ್ |
ಮಮ ವರ್ತ್ಮಾ ಅನುವರ್ತಂತೇ ಮನುಷ್ಯಾಃ ಪಾರ್ಥ ಸರ್ವಶಃ || ೪.೧೧ ||

yE tathA mAM prapadyaMtE tAn tathaiva bhajAmi aham |
mama vartmA anuvartaMtE manuShyAH pArtha sarvashaH || 4.11 ||


As they (whether wise or not) resort to Me, so do I serve them (as per their wish and capacity); O Partha, men are all following the path of Mine. (all duties are directed towards the Supreme God, all offerings are also accepted by Him.)

According to what people seek My grace for, whether with the hope of release (moksha), or with the desire of attaining swarga, or with desire of gaining short term benefits, whatever may be it, I bestow upon them only such things as they wish for, based on their knowledge and merits, but never differently from what they deserve.



4.12


कांक्षन्तः कर्मणां सिद्धिं यजन्त इह दॆवताः
क्षिप्रं हि मानुषॆ लॊकॆ सिद्धिः भवति कर्मजा .१२

ಕಾಂಕ್ಷಂತಃ ಕರ್ಮಣಾಂ ಸಿದ್ಧಿಂ ಯಜಂತ ಇಹ ದೇವತಾಃ |
ಕ್ಷಿಪ್ರಂ ಹಿ ಮಾನುಷೇ ಲೋಕೇ ಸಿದ್ಧಿಃ ಭವತಿ ಕರ್ಮಜಾ || ೪.೧೨ ||

kAMkShaMtaH karmaNAM siddhiM yajaMta iha dEvatAH |
kShipraM hi mAnuShE lOkE siddhiH bhavati karmajA || 4.12 ||


The wise devoted to the Lord desirous of His grace, worship Him alone knowing well that all sacred acts have to be accepted by Him and He only is the impeller of all such acts. But people who are devoted to just the observance of Vedic rites, who are just desirous to see the fruits of their actions soon, do not perceive this truth; and so they worship other gods, without knowing that the Supreme Lord dwelling in the other gods only accepts all the acts and gives fruits.



4.13


चातुः वर्ण्यं मया सृष्टं गुणकर्मविभागशः !
तस्या कर्तारम् अपि मां विद्धि अकर्तारं अव्ययम् .१३

ಚಾತುಃ ವರ್ಣ್ಯಂ ಮಯಾ ಸೃಷ್ಟಂ ಗುಣಕರ್ಮವಿಭಾಗಶಃ !
ತಸ್ಯಾ ಕರ್ತಾರಮ್ ಅಪಿ ಮಾಂ ವಿದ್ಧಿ ಅಕರ್ತಾರಂ ಅವ್ಯಯಮ್ || ೪.೧೩ ||

chAtuH varNyaM mayA sRuShTaM guNakarmavibhAgashaH !
tasyA kartAram api mAM viddhi akartAraM avyayam || 4.13 ||


The cause for gradation in devotion and religious practices lies in God's own system of creation in consonance with the intrinsic nature and individuality of souls. The individual qualities are natural and eternal; so it is natural that there should be differences in the qualities of aspirants in God's creation, which is based on a set of facts like intrinsic difference of souls.

Sri Krishna says: The four varnas have been created by Me based upon the proportions of the qualities - satva, rajas & tamas, and tendency for work. Know Me, the unchanging author of that fourfold system, and the one who is without a maker.


4.14


मां कर्माणि लिम्पन्ति मॆ कर्मफलॆ स्पृहा
इति मां यः अभिजानाति कर्मभिः सः बध्यतॆ .१४

ಮಾಂ ಕರ್ಮಾಣಿ ಲಿಂಪಂತಿ ಮೇ ಕರ್ಮಫಲೇ ಸ್ಪೃಹಾ |
ಇತಿ ಮಾಂ ಯಃ ಅಭಿಜಾನಾತಿ ಕರ್ಮಭಿಃ ಸಃ ಬಧ್ಯತೇ || ೪.೧೪ ||

na mAM karmANi liMpaMti na mE karmaphalE spRuhA |
iti mAM yaH abhijAnAti karmabhiH na saH badhyatE || 4.14 ||


Actions do not cling to Me, I have no longing for the fruits of actions; he who thoroughly thus understands Me is also not bound by actions.



4.15


एवं ज्ञात्वा कृतं कर्म पूर्वैः अपि मुमुक्षुभिः
कुरु कर्म एव तस्मात् त्वं पूर्वैः पूर्वतरं कृतम् .१५

ಏವಂ ಜ್ಞಾತ್ವಾ ಕೃತಂ ಕರ್ಮ ಪೂರ್ವೈಃ ಅಪಿ ಮುಮುಕ್ಷುಭಿಃ |
ಕುರು ಕರ್ಮ ಏವ ತಸ್ಮಾತ್ ತ್ವಂ ಪೂರ್ವೈಃ ಪೂರ್ವತರಂ ಕೃತಮ್ || ೪.೧೫ ||

EvaM j~jAtvA kRutaM karma pUrvaiH api mumukShubhiH |
kuru karma Eva tasmAt tvaM pUrvaiH pUrvataraM kRutam || 4.15 ||


With such knowledge, duties were performed even by the ancients who sought after Moksha. Therefore you too must perform karma which was observed by the ancients and which is still more ancient.



4.16


किं कर्म किं अकर्म इति कवयः अपि अत्र मॊहिताः
तत् तॆ कर्म प्रवक्ष्यामि यत् ज्ञात्वा मॊक्ष्यसॆ अशुभात् .१६

ಕಿಂ ಕರ್ಮ ಕಿಂ ಅಕರ್ಮ ಇತಿ ಕವಯಃ ಅಪಿ ಅತ್ರ ಮೋಹಿತಾಃ |
ತತ್ ತೇ ಕರ್ಮ ಪ್ರವಕ್ಷ್ಯಾಮಿ ಯತ್ ಜ್ಞಾತ್ವಾ ಮೋಕ್ಷ್ಯಸೇ ಅಶುಭಾತ್ || ೪.೧೬ ||

kiM karma kiM akarma iti kavayaH api atra mOhitAH |
tat tE karma pravakShyAmi yat j~jAtvA mOkShyasE ashubhAt || 4.16 ||


What is karma? What is akarma? − with regard to these, even the wise people are confused. I will explain you about that karma, having understood which, you shall be liberated from the inauspicious.



4.17


कर्मणः हि अपि बॊद्धव्यं बॊद्धव्यं विकर्मणः
अकर्मणः बॊद्धव्यं गहना कर्मणः गतिः .१७

ಕರ್ಮಣಃ ಹಿ ಅಪಿ ಬೋದ್ಧವ್ಯಂ ಬೋದ್ಧವ್ಯಂ ವಿಕರ್ಮಣಃ |
ಅಕರ್ಮಣಃ ಬೋದ್ಧವ್ಯಂ ಗಹನಾ ಕರ್ಮಣಃ ಗತಿಃ || ೪.೧೭ ||

karmaNaH hi api bOddhavyaM bOddhavyaM cha vikarmaNaH |
akarmaNaH cha bOddhavyaM gahanA karmaNaH gatiH || 4.17 ||


In fact, the righteous actions (karma) should be understood; the prohibited actions (vikarma) should be understood; and omission of actions (akarma) should be understood as prescribed in the Vedas. Difficult it is to understand the intricacies of actions.

Also,
In fact it should be understood that karma proceeds from Me, vikarma proceeds from Me, and akarma also proceeds from Me; hence the knowledge of actions is difficult to gain.

(By this it is implied that karma is essentially under the control of the Lord, and is not an independent entity. So, one desirous of Moksha should by all means become knowledgeable of Him, since everything has ultimately emanated from the will of the Lord.)



4.18


कर्मणि अकर्म यः पश्यॆत् अकर्मणि कर्म यः
सः बुद्धिमान् मनुष्यॆषु सः युक्तः कृत्स्नकर्मकृत् .१८

ಕರ್ಮಣಿ ಅಕರ್ಮ ಯಃ ಪಶ್ಯೇತ್ ಅಕರ್ಮಣಿ ಕರ್ಮ ಯಃ |
ಸಃ ಬುದ್ಧಿಮಾನ್ ಮನುಷ್ಯೇಷು ಸಃ ಯುಕ್ತಃ ಕೃತ್ಸ್ನಕರ್ಮಕೃತ್ || ೪.೧೮ ||

karmaNi akarma yaH pashyEt akarmaNi cha karma yaH |
saH buddhimAn manuShyEShu saH yuktaH kRutsnakarmakRut || 4.18 ||


One who sees absence of activity in activity; and activity in absence of activity, consider him to be the man with full of wisdom; he has achieved the yoga, and has performed all the duties.

That is, he who perceives "the glorious Lord alone is the independent agent, I am not the absolute agent, all my activities are under His control, whatever I do is in virtue of such limited activity" and, he who sees the ceaseless activity of the Lord no matter whether the jeeva is active or inactive, he has qualified himself for attaining the full measure of wisdom and heavenly bliss proportionate to his performance.



4.19


यस्य सर्वॆ समारम्भाः काम-सन्कल्प-वर्जिताः
ज्ञानाग्नि-दग्ध-कर्माणां तम् आहुः पण्डितं बुधाः .१९

ಯಸ್ಯ ಸರ್ವೇ ಸಮಾರಂಭಾಃ ಕಾಮ-ಸಂಕಲ್ಪ-ವರ್ಜಿತಾಃ |
ಜ್ಞಾನಾಗ್ನಿ-ದಗ್ಧ-ಕರ್ಮಾಣಾಂ ತಮ್ ಆಹುಃ ಪಂಡಿತಂ ಬುಧಾಃ || ೪.೧೯ ||

yasya sarvE samAraMbhAH kAma-saMkalpa-varjitAH |
j~jAnAgni-dagdha-karmANAM tam AhuH paMDitaM budhAH || 4.19 ||


He whose activities are all begun without the desire of fruits, and without anticipation of achieving any particular purpose, he whose karma is burnt up by the fire of knowledge that Lord alone is the absolute doer, the wise declare him as a "sage".



4.20


त्यक्त्वा कर्मफलासंगं नित्यतृप्तः निराश्रयः
कर्मणि अभिप्रवृत्तः अपि एव किञ्चित् करॊति सः .२०

ತ್ಯಕ್ತ್ವಾ ಕರ್ಮಫಲಾಸಂಗಂ ನಿತ್ಯತೃಪ್ತಃ ನಿರಾಶ್ರಯಃ |
ಕರ್ಮಣಿ ಅಭಿಪ್ರವೃತ್ತಃ ಅಪಿ ಏವ ಕಿಂಚಿತ್ ಕರೋತಿ ಸಃ || ೪.೨೦ ||

tyaktvA karmaphalaasaMgaM nityatRuptaH nirAshrayaH |
karmaNi abhipravRuttaH api na Eva kiMchit karOti saH || 4.20 ||


Having eschewed attachment to action and its fruits, he who is ever contended and seeks no other refuge, though ever engaged in action, he is verily doing nothing.



4.21


निराशीः यत चित्त आत्मा त्यक्त सर्व परिग्रहः
शरीरं कॆवलं कर्म कुर्वन् आप्नॊति किल्बिषम् .२१

ನಿರಾಶೀಃ ಯತ ಚಿತ್ತ ಆತ್ಮಾ ತ್ಯಕ್ತ ಸರ್ವ ಪರಿಗ್ರಹಃ |
ಶರೀರಂ ಕೇವಲಂ ಕರ್ಮ ಕುರ್ವನ್ ಆಪ್ನೋತಿ ಕಿಲ್ಬಿಷಮ್ || ೪.೨೧ ||

nirAsheeH yata chitta AtmA tyakta sarva parigrahaH |
shareeraM kEvalaM karma kurvan na ApnOti kilbiSham || 4.21 ||


He who has controlled the mind and heart becomes freed from desires and divested of all surroundings; by doing what is barely physical work he acquires no sin (he does not come into the bondage of karma)



4.22


यदृच्छा लाभ सन्तुष्टः द्वन्द्व अतीतः विमत्सरः
समः सिद्धौ असिद्धौ कृत्वा अपि निबध्यतॆ .२२

ಯದೃಚ್ಛಾ ಲಾಭ ಸಂತುಷ್ಟಃ ದ್ವಂದ್ವ ಅತೀತಃ ವಿಮತ್ಸರಃ |
ಸಮಃ ಸಿದ್ಧೌ ಅಸಿದ್ಧೌ ಕೃತ್ವಾ ಅಪಿ ನಿಬಧ್ಯತೇ || ೪.೨೨ ||

yadRucChA lAbha saMtuShTaH dvaMdva ateetaH vimatsaraH |
samaH siddhau asiddhau cha kRutvA api na nibadhyatE || 4.22 ||


He who is satisfied with what he gets by chance, who is beyond the pairs of opposites (love-hate etc.) and free from envy; being equal in success and failure, though he may perform, he is not bound by karma.



4.23


गतसंगस्य मुक्तस्य ज्ञान अवस्थित चॆतसः
यज्ञाय आचरतः कर्मः समग्रं प्रविलीयतॆ .२३

ಗತಸಂಗಸ್ಯ ಮುಕ್ತಸ್ಯ ಜ್ಞಾನ ಅವಸ್ಥಿತ ಚೇತಸಃ |
ಯಜ್ಞಾಯ ಆಚರತಃ ಕರ್ಮಃ ಸಮಗ್ರಂ ಪ್ರವಿಲೀಯತೇ || ೪.೨೩ ||

gatasaMgasya muktasya j~jAna avasthita chEtasaH |
yaj~jAya AcharataH karmaH samagraM pravileeyatE || 4.23 ||


Freed from attachment to fruits and freed from wrong notion of being the absolute agent, with mind steadied by realization and devotion towards the Lord, he who does duties towards yajna, of him all actions melts away (ceases to be the cause of bondage).



4.24


ब्रह्म अर्पणं ब्रह्म हविः ब्रह्म अग्नौ ब्रह्मणा हुतम्
ब्रह्म एव तॆन गन्तव्यं ब्रह्म कर्म समाधिना .२४

ಬ್ರಹ್ಮ ಅರ್ಪಣಂ ಬ್ರಹ್ಮ ಹವಿಃ ಬ್ರಹ್ಮ ಅಗ್ನೌ ಬ್ರಹ್ಮಣಾ ಹುತಮ್ |
ಬ್ರಹ್ಮ ಏವ ತೇನ ಗಂತವ್ಯಂ ಬ್ರಹ್ಮ ಕರ್ಮ ಸಮಾಧಿನಾ || ೪.೨೪ ||

brahma arpaNaM brahma haviH brahma agnau brahmaNA hutam |
brahma Eva tEna gaMtavyaM brahma karma samAdhinA || 4.24 ||


He who knows that Brahman is the means, Brahman is the offering, Brahman is the fire, Brahman is the act of offering, Brahman is the sacrifice together with meditation, by him alone Brahman is to be reached.



4.25


दैवं एव अपरॆ यज्ञं यॊगिनः पर्युपासतॆ
ब्रह्म अग्नौ अपरॆ यज्ञं यज्ञॆन इव उपजुह्वति .२५

ದೈವಂ ಏವ ಅಪರೇ ಯಜ್ಞಂ ಯೋಗಿನಃ ಪರ್ಯುಪಾಸತೇ |
ಬ್ರಹ್ಮ ಅಗ್ನೌ ಅಪರೇ ಯಜ್ಞಂ ಯಜ್ಞೇನ ಇವ ಉಪಜುಹ್ವತಿ || ೪.೨೫ ||

daivaM Eva aparE yaj~jaM yOginaH paryupAsatE |
brahma agnau aparE yaj~jaM yaj~jEna iva upajuhvati || 4.25 ||


Some yogis perform the worship of the deities as if yajna (daivOpAsaneyE yajnavembante); some others make offerings into the fire of brahman (brahma swarUpavAda agniyalli) by means of actual yajna ritual.



4.26


श्रॊत्र आदीनि इन्द्रियाणि अन्यॆ संयम अग्निषु जुह्वति
शब्द आदीन् विषयान् अन्य इन्द्रिय अग्निषु जुह्वति .२६

ಶ್ರೋತ್ರ ಆದೀನಿ ಇಂದ್ರಿಯಾಣಿ ಅನ್ಯೇ ಸಂಯಮ ಅಗ್ನಿಷು ಜುಹ್ವತಿ |
ಶಬ್ದ ಆದೀನ್ ವಿಷಯಾನ್ ಅನ್ಯ ಇಂದ್ರಿಯ ಅಗ್ನಿಷು ಜುಹ್ವತಿ || ೪.೨೬ ||

shrOtra Adeeni indriyANi anyE saMyama agniShu juhvati |
shabda Adeen viShayAn anya indriya agniShu juhvati || 4.26 ||


Others offer the hearing and other senses into the fires of restraint; still others sacrifice sound and other objects of sense into the fires of the senses.

(Some restrain their senses thinking that it constitutes the Lord's worship; others with the same devotion and knowledge are experiencing the objects of sense by means of the senses.)



4.27


सर्वाणि इन्द्रिय कर्माणि प्राण कर्माणि अपरॆ
आत्म संयम यॊग अग्नौ जुह्वति ज्ञानदीपितॆ .२७

ಸರ್ವಾಣಿ ಇಂದ್ರಿಯ ಕರ್ಮಾಣಿ ಪ್ರಾಣ ಕರ್ಮಾಣಿ ಅಪರೇ |
ಆತ್ಮ ಸಂಯಮ ಯೋಗ ಅಗ್ನೌ ಜುಹ್ವತಿ ಜ್ಞಾನದೀಪಿತೇ || ೪.೨೭ ||

sarvANi indriya karmANi prANa karmANi cha aparE |
Atma saMyama yOga agnau juhvati j~jAnadeepitE || 4.27 ||


Kindled by knowledge, others again offer all the activities of the organs of action and the activities of breath (prANa) into the fire of yoga, called the restraint of mind



4.28


द्रव्ययज्ञाः तपॊयज्ञा यॊगयज्ञाः तथा अपरॆ
स्वाध्याय ज्ञानयज्ञाः यतयः संशित व्रताः .२८

ದ್ರವ್ಯಯಜ್ಞಾಃ ತಪೋಯಜ್ಞಾ ಯೋಗಯಜ್ಞಾಃ ತಥಾ ಅಪರೇ |
ಸ್ವಾಧ್ಯಾಯ ಜ್ಞಾನಯಜ್ಞಾಃ ಯತಯಃ ಸಂಶಿತ ವ್ರತಾಃ || ೪.೨೮ ||

dravyayaj~jAH tapOyaj~jA yOgayaj~jAH tathA aparE |
svAdhyAya j~jAnayaj~jAH cha yatayaH saMshita vratAH || 4.28 ||


There are yet others who perform sacrifice with substances, sacrifice with austerities, sacrifice with meditation, and sacrifice by studying the Vedas and acquiring the transcendental knowledge; all enlightened beings and performers of strict vows.



4.29


अपानॆ जुह्वति प्राणं प्राणॆ अपानं तथा अपरॆ
प्राण-अपान गती रुद्ध्वा प्राणायाम परायणाः .२९

ಅಪಾನೇ ಜುಹ್ವತಿ ಪ್ರಾಣಂ ಪ್ರಾಣೇ ಅಪಾನಂ ತಥಾ ಅಪರೇ |
ಪ್ರಾಣ-ಅಪಾನ ಗತೀ ರುದ್ಧ್ವಾ ಪ್ರಾಣಾಯಾಮ ಪರಾಯಣಾಃ || ೪.೨೯ ||

apAnE juhvati prANaM prANE apAnaM tathA aparE |
prANa-apAna gatI ruddhvA prANAyAma parAyaNAH || 4.29 ||


Some other people, who are devoted to controlling the breath, having checked the courses of prana and apaana, make the prana enter into apaana, and apaana into prana.

(This describes the state of kumbhaka when those practising Yoga suspend the process of respiration completely for some time for the purpose of securing perfect concentration.)



4.30


अपरॆ नियत आहाराः प्राणान् प्राणॆषु जुह्वति
सर्वॆ अपि एतॆ यज्ञ विदः यज्ञ क्षपित कल्मषाः .३०

ಅಪರೇ ನಿಯತ ಆಹಾರಾಃ ಪ್ರಾಣಾನ್ ಪ್ರಾಣೇಷು ಜುಹ್ವತಿ |
ಸರ್ವೇ ಅಪಿ ಏತೇ ಯಜ್ಞ ವಿದಃ ಯಜ್ಞ ಕ್ಷಪಿತ ಕಲ್ಮಷಾಃ || ೪.೩೦ ||

aparE niyata AhArAH prANAn prANEShu juhvati |
sarvE api etE yaj~ja vidaH yaj~ja kShapita kalmaShAH || 4.30 ||


Others having regulated their food, sacrifice the senses into the senses (restrain or limit the activities of the senses in themselves). All these without exception have known yajnya, have their sins reduced by yajnya.



4.31


यज्ञ शिष्ट अमृत भुजः यान्ति ब्रह्म सनातनम्
अयं लॊकः अस्ति अयज्ञस्य कुतः अन्यः कुरुसत्तम .३१

ಯಜ್ಞ ಶಿಷ್ಟ ಅಮೃತ ಭುಜಃ ಯಾಂತಿ ಬ್ರಹ್ಮ ಸನಾತನಮ್ |
ಅಯಂ ಲೋಕಃ ಅಸ್ತಿ ಅಯಜ್ಞಸ್ಯ ಕುತಃ ಅನ್ಯಃ ಕುರುಸತ್ತಮ || ೪.೩೧ ||

yaj~ja shiShTa amRuta bhujaH yAnti brahma sanAtanam |
na ayaM lOkaH asti ayaj~jasya kutaH anyaH kurusattama || 4.31 ||


O best of Kurus, those who consume the equivalent of amrita that remains after offering to the God in sacrifice, they reach the eternal Brahman. But for a non-sacrificer, there is no place in this world, much less in the superior worlds.



4.32


एवं बहुविधाः यज्ञाः वितताः ब्रह्मणः मुखॆ
कर्मजान् विद्धि तान् सर्वान् एवं ज्ञात्वा विमॊक्ष्यसॆ .३२

ಏವಂ ಬಹುವಿಧಾಃ ಯಜ್ಞಾಃ ವಿತತಾಃ ಬ್ರಹ್ಮಣಃ ಮುಖೇ |
ಕರ್ಮಜಾನ್ ವಿದ್ಧಿ ತಾನ್ ಸರ್ವಾನ್ ಏವಂ ಜ್ಞಾತ್ವಾ ವಿಮೋಕ್ಷ್ಯಸೇ || ೪.೩೨ ||

evaM bahuvidhAH yaj~jAH vitatAH brahmaNaH mukhE |
karmajAn viddhi tAn sarvAn evaM j~jAtvA vimOkShyasE || 4.32 ||


Thus, of sacrifices are of many kinds in detail, but all are offered to Brahman; know them all as resulting from action; having thus understood, you will seek release.

(Thus is implied: Arjuna, if you abandon war, and then for the sake of release you practise meditation, or any such thing, know that even that is an activity; thereby you will only be abandoning the duty imposed upon you, but you have not escaped "doing". Hence it is fit that being wise, you do not abandon the ordained duty of war.)



4.33


श्रॆयान् द्रव्यमयात् यज्ञात् ज्ञान यज्ञः परन्तप
सर्वं कर्म अखिलं पार्थ ज्ञानॆ परिसमाप्यतॆ .३३

ಶ್ರೇಯಾನ್ ದ್ರವ್ಯಮಯಾತ್ ಯಜ್ಞಾತ್ ಜ್ಞಾನ ಯಜ್ಞಃ ಪರಂತಪ |
ಸರ್ವಂ ಕರ್ಮ ಅಖಿಲಂ ಪಾರ್ಥ ಜ್ಞಾನೇ ಪರಿಸಮಾಪ್ಯತೇ || ೪.೩೩ ||

shrEyAn dravyamayAt yaj~jAt j~jAna yaj~jaH parantapa |
sarvaM karma akhilaM pArtha j~jAnE parisamApyatE || 4.33 ||


If it be asked that which of the aforesaid sacrifices is the most exalted, the Lord says:

O Parantapa, better than the sacrifices of the substances is the "sacrifice of wisdom" (righteous efforts to gain knowledge and wisdom); every act, be it the smallest, finds its accomplishment in wisdom (when the wisdom is gained, all actions bear fruits), O Partha.



4.34


तत् विद्धि प्रणिपातॆन परिप्रश्नॆन सॆवया
उपदॆक्ष्यन्ति तॆ ज्ञानं ज्ञानिनः तत्वदर्शिनः .३४

ತತ್ ವಿದ್ಧಿ ಪ್ರಣಿಪಾತೇನ ಪರಿಪ್ರಶ್ನೇನ ಸೇವಯಾ |
ಉಪದೇಕ್ಷ್ಯಂತಿ ತೇ ಜ್ಞಾನಂ ಜ್ಞಾನಿನಃ ತತ್ವದರ್ಶಿನಃ || ೪.೩೪ ||

tat viddhi praNipAtEna pariprashnEna sEvayA |
upadEkShyanti tE j~jAnaM j~jAninaH tatvadarshinaH || 4.34 ||


Therefore by request, by service, by respectful inquiry, the wise who see the truth will impart you knowledge; do learn that from them.



4.35


यत् ज्ञात्वा पुनः मॊहं एवं यास्यसि पाण्डव
यॆन भूतानि अशॆषाणि द्रक्ष्यसि आत्मनि अथॊ मयि .३५

ಯತ್ ಜ್ಞಾತ್ವಾ ಪುನಃ ಮೋಹಂ ಏವಂ ಯಾಸ್ಯಸಿ ಪಾಂಡವ |
ಯೇನ ಭೂತಾನಿ ಅಶೇಷಾಣಿ ದ್ರಕ್ಷ್ಯಸಿ ಆತ್ಮನಿ ಅಥೋ ಮಯಿ || ೪.೩೫ ||

yat j~jAtvA na punaH mOhaM evaM yAsyasi pANDava |
yEna bhUtAni ashEShANi drakShyasi Atmani athO mayi || 4.35 ||


Having gained the knowledge (to be imparted to you) you shall not again fall into this confusion, O Pandava. Hence by that knowledge you shall see all beings without exception, in Me, the Atman (the one who sits within all beings and actuates them).



4.36


अपि चॆत् असि पापॆभ्यः सर्वॆभ्यः पापकृत्तमः
सर्वं ज्ञान प्लवॆन एव वृजिनं सन्तरिष्यसि .३६

ಅಪಿ ಚೇತ್ ಅಸಿ ಪಾಪೇಭ್ಯಃ ಸರ್ವೇಭ್ಯಃ ಪಾಪಕೃತ್ತಮಃ |
ಸರ್ವಂ ಜ್ಞಾನ ಪ್ಲವೇನ ಏವ ವೃಜಿನಂ ಸಂತರಿಷ್ಯಸಿ || ೪.೩೬ ||

api chEt asi pApEbhyaH sarvEbhyaH pApakRuttamaH |
sarvaM j~jAna plavEna eva vRujinaM santariShyasi || 4.36 ||


Even if you were the worst sinner of all sinners, you shall be able to cross over all the sins by the raft of wisdom alone.



4.37


यथा एधांसि समिद्धः अग्निः भस्मसात् कुरुतॆ अर्जुन
ज्ञान अग्निः सर्व कर्माणि भस्मसात् कुरुतॆ तथा .३७

ಯಥಾ ಏಧಾಂಸಿ ಸಮಿದ್ಧಃ ಅಗ್ನಿಃ ಭಸ್ಮಸಾತ್ ಕುರುತೇ ಅರ್ಜುನ |
ಜ್ಞಾನ ಅಗ್ನಿಃ ಸರ್ವ ಕರ್ಮಾಣಿ ಭಸ್ಮಸಾತ್ ಕುರುತೇ ತಥಾ || ೪.೩೭ ||

yathA edhAMsi samiddhaH agniH bhasmasAt kurutE arjuna |
j~jAna agniH sarva karmANi bhasmasAt kurutE tathA || 4.37 ||


Just as how the flaming fire reduces all fuel to ashes, O Arjuna, so does the fire of wisdom reduce all actions to ashes



4.38


हि ज्ञानॆन सदृशं पवित्रम् इह विद्यतॆ
तत् स्वयं यॊगसंसिद्धः कालॆन आत्मनि विन्दति .३८

ಹಿ ಜ್ಞಾನೇನ ಸದೃಶಂ ಪವಿತ್ರಮ್ ಇಹ ವಿದ್ಯತೇ |
ತತ್ ಸ್ವಯಂ ಯೋಗಸಂಸಿದ್ಧಃ ಕಾಲೇನ ಆತ್ಮನಿ ವಿಂದತಿ || ೪.೩೮ ||

na hi j~jAnEna sadRushaM pavitram iha vidyatE |
tat svayaM yOgasaMsiddhaH kAlEna Atmani vindati || 4.38 ||


In this world there is nothing as purifying as the wisdom (correct knowledge); The illuminated soul, cultivated in this wisdom, eventually gets to the God in the course of time.



4.39


श्रद्धावान् लभतॆ ज्ञानं तत् परः संयत इन्द्रियः
ज्ञानं लब्ध्वा परां शान्तिम् अचिरॆण अधिगच्छति .३९

ಶ್ರದ್ಧಾವಾನ್ ಲಭತೇ ಜ್ಞಾನಂ ತತ್ ಪರಃ ಸಂಯತ ಇಂದ್ರಿಯಃ |
ಜ್ಞಾನಂ ಲಬ್ಧ್ವಾ ಪರಾಂ ಶಾಂತಿಮ್ ಅಚಿರೇಣ ಅಧಿಗಚ್ಛತಿ || ೪.೩೯ ||

shraddhAvAn labhatE j~jAnaM tat paraH saMyata indriyaH |
j~jAnaM labdhvA parAM shAntim achirENa adhigacChati || 4.39 ||


He who is full of faith and devoted to the Supreme Lord, and has mastery over his senses, obtains wisdom, and before long thereafter (after exhausting his prArabdha karma) attains the Moksha



4.40


अज्ञः अश्रद्दधानः संशय-आत्मा विनश्यन्ति
अयं लॊकः अस्ति परः सुखं संशय-आत्मनः .४०

ಅಜ್ಞಃ ಅಶ್ರದ್ದಧಾನಃ ಸಂಶಯ-ಆತ್ಮಾ ವಿನಶ್ಯಂತಿ |
ಅಯಂ ಲೋಕಃ ಅಸ್ತಿ ಪರಃ ಸುಖಂ ಸಂಶಯ-ಆತ್ಮನಃ || ೪.೪೦ ||

aj~jaH cha ashraddadhAnaH cha saMshaya-AtmA vinashyanti |
na ayaM lOkaH asti na paraH na sukhaM saMshaya-AtmanaH || 4.40 ||


If knowledge, and means of knowledge are absent, naturally wrong notions would step in, and the Lord points out the consequences of the latter :

The one, who is ignorant, is destitute of faith, and having full of doubts (uncertainty), he perishes (goes to Hell); for him who doubts, there is neither this world nor the other (superior lokas) nor happiness.



4.41


यॊग सन्यस्त कर्माणं ज्ञान सञ्छिन्न संशयम्
आत्मवन्तं कर्माणि निबध्नन्ति धनञ्जय .४१

ಯೋಗ ಸಂಯಸ್ತ ಕರ್ಮಾಣಂ ಜ್ಞಾನ ಸಂಛಿನ್ನ ಸಂಶಯಮ್ |
ಆತ್ಮವಂತಂ ಕರ್ಮಾಣಿ ನಿಬಧ್ನಂತಿ ಧನಂಜಯ || ೪.೪೧ ||

yOga sanyasta karmANaM j~jAna sa~jChinna saMshayam |
AtmavantaM na karmANi nibadhnanti dhana~jjaya || 4.41 ||


O Dhananjaya, he whose heart is set on the Lord and actions are offered to Him, whose doubts are dispelled by wisdom, whose master is the Supreme Lord - to such a person, actions do not bind. (that is, he attains release)



4.42


तस्मात् अज्ञान सम्भूतं हृत्स्थं ज्ञानासिन आत्मनः
छित्वा एनं संशयं यॊगम् आतिष्ठ उत्तिष्ठ भारत .४२

ತಸ್ಮಾತ್ ಅಜ್ಞಾನ ಸಂಭೂತಂ ಹೃತ್ಸ್ಥಂ ಜ್ಞಾನಾಸಿನ ಆತ್ಮನಃ |
ಛಿತ್ವಾ ಏನಂ ಸಂಶಯಂ ಯೋಗಮ್ ಆತಿಷ್ಠ ಉತ್ತಿಷ್ಠ ಭಾರತ || ೪.೪೨ ||

tasmAt aj~jAna sambhUtaM hRut^sthaM j~jAnAsina AtmanaH |
ChitvA enaM saMshayaM yOgam AtiShTha uttiShTha bhArata || 4.42 ||


Therefore having cut into pieces, with the sword of wisdom, the doubt that has arisen out of ignorance and which abides in the heart, follow the Yoga; stand up (to fight) O Bharata.



Thus ends "Jnyana Yoga", the Fourth chapter of Sri Bhagavadgeeta

shree bhArateeramaNa mukhyaprANa antargata shree krishNArpaNam astu

2 comments:

Nagendra Kumar said...

Dear Website Owner,

I am Nagendra Kumar, Site Admin of Madhwas.com

I request you to place a Text or Image Link of Madhwas.com in your Blog/Website.

I found Your Blog/Website Content & category is pretty much similar and same to Our Website.
It would be really great if you place back a Text Link or Image link of us, which can help out both our existance in the Ocean of Internet.

Looking forward for your positive reply.

Text Link
------------

Madhwas.com - Madhwa Sampradaaya, Madhwa Philosophy, Madhwa Aachaara


We have already placed your Website Link into our website's Links page.

Please refer your link in our Links page, mistakenly if you have not seeing your blogs link, just shoot us a email, we will update it immediately.


Regards
Nagendra Kumar

Madhwa Brahmins said...

Our pleasure ! Done ...