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A very warm welcome to the blog of Madhwa Brahmins community.
We, Madhwa Brahmins are followers of Jagadguru Sriman Madhwacharya. We originally hail from places in Karnataka and the neighboring states of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Our main dialects are Kannada, Tulu, Marathi, Telugu and Konkani.

A brief background of Jagadguru Sri Madhwacharya:

prathamO hanumAn nAma dviteeyO bheema Eva cha |
pUrNaprajna tRuteeyastu bhagavat kAryasAdhakaH ||

As the above shloka from khila vAyustuti explains, Sri Madhwacharya (also known by the names Poornaprajna and Anandateertha) is the third incarnation of Lord MukhyaprAna Vaayu, after Lord Hanuman and Lord Bheemasena. He is the chief proponent of TattvavAda, popularly known as Dvaita. He was born on Vijayadashami day of 1238 CE at Paajaka Kshetra, a small village near Udupi. He is the 22nd commentator on the Brahma sutras of Lord Sri Veda Vyasa.

Kindly note that this blog contains important topics discussed in our Orkut community and some articles on tattvavAda philosophy. All the topics can be found in the BLOG ARCHIVE (right side)

28 March, 2010

Srimad Bhagavadgeeta - Chapter 3

Srimad Bhagavadgeeta
Chapter 3
- Karma Yoga

For translation of chapter 1, click HERE
For translation of chapter 2, click HERE


S. Subba Rau, "The Bhagavad-Gita, Translation and commentaries in English, according to Sri Madhwacharya's bhashyas" Minerva Press, Madras (1906)

In this chapter, "Yoga" which consists of Nivrutta Karma and which becomes the way to Wisdom is dwelt upon at a greater depth, so that the necessity for its observance may be impressed.


अर्जुन उवाच :-
ज्यायसी चॆत् कर्मणः तॆ मता बुद्धिः जनार्दन
तत् किं कर्मणि घॊरॆ मां नियॊजयसि कॆशव ॥ ३.१ ॥

ಅರ್ಜುನ ಉವಾಚ :-
ಜ್ಯಾಯಸೀ ಚೇತ್ ಕರ್ಮಣಃ ತೇ ಮತಾ ಬುದ್ಧಿಃ ಜನಾರ್ದನ
ತತ್ ಕಿಂ ಕರ್ಮಣಿ ಘೋರೇ ಮಾಂ ನಿಯೋಜಯಸಿ ಕೇಶವ || ೩.೧ ||

arjuna uvAcha :-
jyAyasee chEt karmaNaH tE matA buddhiH janArdana
tat kiM karmaNi ghOrE mAM niyOjayasi kEshava || 3.1 ||

Arjuna said:
O Janardana, if as per your judgment knowledge is superior to action, then O Keshava, why are you urging me onto this terrible action?


व्यामिश्रॆण इव वाक्यॆन बुद्धिं मॊहयसि इव मॆ ।
तत् एकं वद निश्चित्य यॆन श्रॆयः अहं आप्नुयाम् ॥ ३.२ ॥

ವ್ಯಾಮಿಶ್ರೇಣ ಇವ ವಾಕ್ಯೇನ ಬುದ್ಧಿಂ ಮೋಹಯಸಿ ಇವ ಮೇ |
ತತ್ ಏಕಂ ವದ ನಿಶ್ಚಿತ್ಯ ಯೇನ ಶ್ರೇಯಃ ಅಹಂ ಆಪ್ನುಯಾಮ್ || ೩.೨ ||

vyAmishrENa iva vAkyEna buddhiM mOhayasi iva mE |
tat EkaM vada nishchitya yEna shrEyaH ahaM ApnuyAm || 3.2 ||

Arjuna said: With these simply perplexing words you seem to confuse my understanding; therefore tell me with certainty one thing by which I can reach the highest good.


श्री भगवान् उवाच :-
लॊकॆ अस्मिन् द्विविधा निष्ठा पुरा प्रॊक्ता मया अनघ ।
ज्ञानयॊगॆन साख्यानां कर्मयॊगॆन यॊगिनाम् ॥ ३.३ ॥

ಶ್ರೀ ಭಗವಾನ್ ಉವಾಚ :-
ಲೋಕೇ ಅಸ್ಮಿನ್ ದ್ವಿವಿಧಾ ನಿಷ್ಠಾ ಪುರಾ ಪ್ರೋಕ್ತಾ ಮಯಾ ಅನಘ |
ಜ್ಞಾನಯೋಗೇನ ಸಾಖ್ಯಾನಾಂ ಕರ್ಮಯೋಗೇನ ಯೋಗಿನಾಮ್ || ೩.೩ ||

shree bhagavAn uvAcha :-
lOkE asmin dvividhA niShThA purA prOktA mayA anagha |
j~jAnayOgEna sAkhyAnAM karmayOgEna yOginAm || 3.3 ||

Sri Krishna said: O the sinless one, as I said before, in this world the path for attainment of moksha is of two types; by means of knowledge for the sAnkhyas, by means of action for the yOgis.

Among those eligible for moksha, ascetics like Sanaka, etc possess larger measure of wisdom than the measure of duties they perform, and as such they get moksha. Others like Janaka, etc get moksha by the merit of duties they perform, which is proportionally greater than the merit of wisdom they possess.


न कर्मणां अनारम्भात् नैष्कर्म्यं पुरुषः अश्नुतॆ ।
न च संन्यसनात् ऎव सिद्धिं समधिगच्छति ॥ ३.४ ॥

ನ ಕರ್ಮಣಾಂ ಅನಾರಂಭಾತ್ ನೈಷ್ಕರ್ಮ್ಯಂ ಪುರುಷಃ ಅಶ್ನುತೇ |
ನ ಚ ಸಂನ್ಯಸನಾತ್ ಏವ ಸಿದ್ಧಿಂ ಸಮಧಿಗಚ್ಛತಿ || ೩.೪ ||

na karmaNAM anAraMbhAt naiShkarmyaM puruShaH ashnutE |
na cha saMnyasanAt Eva siddhiM samadhigacChati || 3.4 ||

It cannot be that from the omission of duties the person attains release called Naishkarmya; nor by mere renunciation does he attain the accomplishment

In the first statement above, the word "purusha" means one who passes through bodies. If inaction alone could grant him moksha, it would mean that at some stage when he gets a body unfit for any activity he should get moksha after the decay of that body. Then it would be difficult to account for the present life.

The word "naishkarmya" has been used to indicate that moksha is unattainable by means of action prompted by desires.

The second statement means that by omission of duties the person cannot attain that which is to be reached by relinquishing actions attended with motives.

Hereby Sri Krishna means that "your view that inaction leads to release because the root of samsara would be thereby cut, cannot be maintained"

No one attains liberation by mere non-commencement of work nor does he attain redemption by mere asceticism.

This is another reason why one should engage in his own duty - as explained in "na karmanâ" shlôka.

"karmanâm" - by not performing war,

"nishkarmam" - action performed without expectation.

By not performing without expectation. By not performing war one will not obtain liberation (Môksha) which is obtained by performing action without expectation for results. Why? because Jîva is of the nature of Purusha (one who passes through bodies). By nature jîvas body is non-physical (not sthûla) and is minute (sûkshma). If one can get liberated by just not performing action, then all the trees and plants should get liberated.

In this long and old cycle of transmigration at the least everybody would have got such a body (of tree) at the least once. So every one would have got liberated and it is not possible for the present world to exist. Therefore inaction is not the means to liberation. It is wrong to say that by non performing action one will get rid of all the results of action and in-turn will get liberated. How is it that one will get rid of the results of action by not performing action in this life when they have performed action in their past life? It is not possible to say by experiencing these results. A person in one life commits action whose results last for many lives. By reduction of these results one will obtain human form. Again he performs action which results in many births. Thus it becomes impossible to escape from the cycle of transmigration.

In Brahma purâna it is told -

"A man or women who lives for more than 14 years usually performs action which at least results in more than 10 births. As this universe exist for ever even the results of action exist for ever. How can one get liberated without knowledge of the God?"

If we assume that this universe comes into being just by fluke, then results of action are not present. So it not not possible for Jîva to get bound to transmigration. One can over come the results of action by performing action without expectation. It is further clarified in "anishtamishtam" -shlôka. (Bhagavad Gita 18:12)

In Manu smrti it is told that action performed without expectation results in Môksha -

"Action performed with transcendental knowledge without expectation for results is called 'nirvrutta karma'. One who engages in performing such nivrutta karma attain Môksha."

If some one argues "just like performing action without expectation results in no attachment, doing no action also gives same effect' - it is denied by saying "na cha sanyasanâdêva". i.e one will not attain redemption by mere asceticism. Sanyâsa is not inaction. It is doing action without expectation of results. It is clarified further in - "kâmyanâm karmanâm" shlôka (Bhagavad Gita 18:2). By performing action without expectation heart gets purified. This intern results in transcendent knowledge and Môksha.

It is told in Bhâgavatam -

"Action performed with pure mind gives rise to detachment in heart."

Having detachment towards material world is transcendent knowledge. It is told in Bhâgavatam (5-11-3) -

"One who does not realize that pleasure experienced by married people is of lower category just like dream will not get transcendental knowledge by studying Vêdas"

One should perform action not with expectation of results but for the sake of doing right action. Not performing action is not a means to attain Môksha. (Not performing right action arises not from disinterest but from selfishness.)

Sanyâsâshrama is to concentrate on Lord and to obtain love of Lord. It is usually not possible for householder to concentrate mind on God. He will have other interests. Without concentrated mind it is not possible to obtain transcendental knowledge.

Sruti states the same fact -

"nâshânto nâ samâhitaha" - Kathopanishad (2-23).

"One who does not have transcendental knowledge and concentrated mind will not be able to obtain God".

God gets more pleased by Sanyâsâshrama.

"I like the fourth âshrama - Sanyâsa the most" - Nârâyana ashtâkshara kalpa.

Those who have eligibility will be able to concentrate the mind even in gruhastâshrama, engaged in action. They are most dear to God. It is told -

"Demigods and Kings of past generation, even though were engaged in performing great activities, their mind was not distracted from Lord. Lord Hari is very much pleased by such activities."

- Padma purâna.


न हि कश्चित् क्षणं अपि जातु तिष्ठति अकर्मकृत् ।
कार्यतॆ हि अवशः कर्म सर्वः प्रकृतिजैः गुणैः ॥ ३.५ ॥

ನ ಹಿ ಕಶ್ಚಿತ್ ಕ್ಷಣಂ ಅಪಿ ಜಾತು ತಿಷ್ಠತಿ ಅಕರ್ಮಕೃತ್ |
ಕಾರ್ಯತೇ ಹಿ ಅವಶಃ ಕರ್ಮ ಸರ್ವಃ ಪ್ರಕೃತಿಜೈಃ ಗುಣೈಃ || ೩.೫ ||

na hi kashchit kShaNaM api jAtu tiShThati akarmakRut |
kAryatE hi avashaH karma sarvaH prakRutijaiH guNaiH || 3.5 ||

Indeed nobody can ever remain without doing any work even for a moment; for, everyone is driven to action by the qualities of nature under the power of the Lord.


कर्मॆन्द्रियाणि संयम्य यः आस्तॆ मनसा स्मरन् ।
इन्द्रियार्थान् विमूढात्मा मिथ्याचारः सः उच्यतॆ ॥ ३.६ ॥

ಕರ್ಮೇಂದ್ರಿಯಾಣಿ ಸಂಯಮ್ಯ ಯಃ ಆಸ್ತೇ ಮನಸಾ ಸ್ಮರನ್ |
ಇಂದ್ರಿಯಾರ್ಥಾನ್ ವಿಮೂಢಾತ್ಮಾ ಮಿಥ್ಯಾಚಾರಃ ಸಃ ಉಚ್ಯತೇ || ೩.೬ ||

karmEMdriyANi saMyamya yaH AstE manasA smaran |
iMdriyArthAn vimUDhAtmA mithyAchAraH saH uchyatE || 3.6 ||

He who is controlling the organs of action, but in the mind is thinking of the objects of sense, such a person is entirely in a delusion, and is called a hypocrite


यः तु इन्द्रियाणि मनसा नियम्य आरभतॆ अर्जुन ।
कर्म-इन्द्रियैः कर्म-यॊगं असक्तः सः विशिष्यतॆ ॥ ३.७ ॥

ಯಃ ತು ಇಂದ್ರಿಯಾಣಿ ಮನಸಾ ನಿಯಂಯ ಆರಭತೇ ಅರ್ಜುನ |
ಕರ್ಮ-ಇಂದ್ರಿಯೈಃ ಕರ್ಮ-ಯೋಗಂ ಅಸಕ್ತಃ ಸಃ ವಿಶಿಷ್ಯತೇ || ೩.೭ ||

yaH tu iMdriyANi manasA niyaMya ArabhatE arjuna |
karma-iMdriyaiH karma-yOgaM asaktaH saH vishiShyatE || 3.7 ||

O Arjuna, but he excels, who having controlled the senses by the mind, begins to read the path of action with the organs of action, without any attachment


नियतं कुरु कर्म त्वं कर्म ज्यायः हि अकर्मणः ।
शरीरयात्रा अपि च तॆ न प्रसिद्ध्यॆत् अकर्मणः ॥ ३.८ ॥

ನಿಯತಂ ಕುರು ಕರ್ಮ ತ್ವಂ ಕರ್ಮ ಜ್ಯಾಯಃ ಹಿ ಅಕರ್ಮಣಃ |
ಶರೀರಯಾತ್ರಾ ಅಪಿ ಚ ತೇ ನ ಪ್ರಸಿದ್ಧ್ಯೇತ್ ಅಕರ್ಮಣಃ || ೩.೮ ||

niyataM kuru karma tvaM karma jyAyaH hi akarmaNaH |
shareerayAtrA api cha tE na prasiddhyEt akarmaNaH || 3.8 ||

Do your appointed duty; because doing is better than not doing; even to keep the body and soul together is not possible by not doing the prescribed duties.


यज्ञ अर्थात् कर्मणः अन्यत्र लॊकः अयं कर्म-बन्धनः ।
तत् अर्थं कर्म कौन्तॆय मुक्तसङ्गः समाचर ॥ ३.९ ॥

ಯಜ್ಞ ಅರ್ಥಾತ್ ಕರ್ಮಣಃ ಅನ್ಯತ್ರ ಲೋಕಃ ಅಯಂ ಕರ್ಮ-ಬಂಧನಃ |
ತತ್ ಅರ್ಥಂ ಕರ್ಮ ಕೌಂತೇಯ ಮುಕ್ತಸಂಗಃ ಸಮಾಚರ || ೩.೯ ||

yaj~ja arthAt karmaNaH anyatra lOkaH ayaM karma-baMdhanaH |
tat arthaM karma kauMtEya muktasaMgaH samAchara || 3.9 ||

In relation to action other than what is intended for yajna, this world is bound by karma; (Any act performed except for the worship of Lord leads to bondage); therefore O son of Kunti, you should perform your duties for that purpose (worship of Lord) without wishing for a reward and with perfect devotion to the Lord.


सहयज्ञाः प्रजाः सृष्ट्वा पुरा उवाच प्रजापतिः ।
अनॆन प्रसविष्यध्वं एषः वः अस्तु इष्टकामधुक् ॥ ३.१० ॥

ಸಹಯಜ್ಞಾಃ ಪ್ರಜಾಃ ಸೃಷ್ಟ್ವಾ ಪುರಾ ಉವಾಚ ಪ್ರಜಾಪತಿಃ |
ಅನೇನ ಪ್ರಸವಿಷ್ಯಧ್ವಂ ಏಷಃ ವಃ ಅಸ್ತು ಇಷ್ಟಕಾಮಧುಕ್ || ೩.೧೦ ||

sahayaj~jAH prajAH sRuShTvA purA uvAcha prajApatiH |
anEna prasaviShyadhvaM EShaH vaH astu iShTakAmadhuk || 3.10 ||

In the beginning of creation, Brahma created all the beings as a result of performance of sacrifice unto the Supreme Lord; he then said (to humankind): By means of sacrifices you will evolve and prosper; let sacrifices bestow all that is desirable for you.


दॆवान् भावयत अनॆन तॆ दॆवा भावयन्तु वः ।
परस्परं भावयन्तः श्रॆयः परं अवाप्स्यथ ॥ ३.११ ॥

ದೇವಾನ್ ಭಾವಯತ ಅನೇನ ತೇ ದೇವಾ ಭಾವಯಂತು ವಃ |
ಪರಸ್ಪರಂ ಭಾವಯಂತಃ ಶ್ರೇಯಃ ಪರಂ ಅವಾಪ್ಸ್ಯಥ || ೩.೧೧ ||

dEvAn bhAvayata anEna tE dEvA bhAvayaMtu vaH |
parasparaM bhAvayaMtaH shrEyaH paraM avApsyatha || 3.11 ||

People should propitiate (appease) the gods with their offerings in sacrifices, and the gods bless people by bestowing upon them every comfort and highest good - Moksha or final beatitude.


इष्टान् भॊगान् हि वः दॆवाः दास्यन्तॆ यज्ञभाविताः ।
तैः दत्तान् अप्रदाय एभ्यः यः भुंक्तॆ स्तॆन एव सः ॥ ३.१२ ॥

ಇಷ್ಟಾನ್ ಭೋಗಾನ್ ಹಿ ವಃ ದೇವಾಃ ದಾಸ್ಯಂತೇ ಯಜ್ಞಭಾವಿತಾಃ |
ತೈಃ ದತ್ತಾನ್ ಅಪ್ರದಾಯ ಏಭ್ಯಃ ಯಃ ಭುಂಕ್ತೇ ಸ್ತೇನ ಏವ ಸಃ || ೩.೧೨ ||

iShTAn bhOgAn hi vaH dEvAH dAsyaMtE yaj~jabhAvitAH |
taiH dattAn apradAya EbhyaH yaH bhuMktE stEna Eva saH || 3.12 ||

The gods being satisfied by the performance of the sacrifices will confer on you the desired blessings; but he who enjoys these given necessities without first offering them unto the Supreme God, that person is certainly a thief.


यज्ञशिष्ट अशिनः सन्तः मुच्यन्तॆ सर्व किल्बिषैः ।
भुञ्जतॆ तॆ तु अघं पापाः यॆ पचन्ति आत्मकारणात् ॥ ३.१३ ॥

ಯಜ್ಞಶಿಷ್ಟ ಅಶಿನಃ ಸಂತಃ ಮುಚ್ಯಂತೇ ಸರ್ವ ಕಿಲ್ಬಿಷೈಃ |
ಭುಂಜತೇ ತೇ ತು ಅಘಂ ಪಾಪಾಃ ಯೇ ಪಚಂತಿ ಆತ್ಮಕಾರಣಾತ್ || ೩.೧೩ ||

yaj~jashiShTa ashinaH saMtaH muchyaMtE sarva kilbiShaiH |
bhuMjatE tE tu aghaM pApAH yE pachaMti AtmakAraNAt || 3.13 ||

The righteous people who eat what is left over after sacrifice are freed from all sins; but those impious people who prepare food for their own consumption only eat sin.


अन्नात् भवन्ति भूतानि पर्जन्यात् अन्न सम्भवः ।
यज्ञात् भवति पर्जन्यः यज्ञः कर्म समुद्भवः ॥ ३.१४ ॥

ಅನ್ನಾತ್ ಭವಂತಿ ಭೂತಾನಿ ಪರ್ಜನ್ಯಾತ್ ಅನ್ನ ಸಂಭವಃ |
ಯಜ್ಞಾತ್ ಭವತಿ ಪರ್ಜನ್ಯಃ ಯಜ್ಞಃ ಕರ್ಮ ಸಮುದ್ಭವಃ || ೩.೧೪ ||

annAt bhavaMti bhUtAni parjanyAt anna saMbhavaH |
yaj~jAt bhavati parjanyaH yaj~jaH karma samudbhavaH || 3.14 ||

Living entities come into being from food; Food is produced from rainfall (presided over by the deity of clouds, called Parjanya); Rainfall occurs from the performance of yajna; Yajna is a product of performing prescribed duties.


कर्म ब्रह्मॊद्भवं विद्धि ब्रह्माक्षर समुद्भवम् ।
तस्मात् सर्वगतं ब्रह्म नित्यं यज्ञॆ प्रतिष्ठितम् ॥ ३.१५ ॥

ಕರ್ಮ ಬ್ರಹ್ಮೋದ್ಭವಂ ವಿದ್ಧಿ ಬ್ರಹ್ಮಾಕ್ಷರ ಸಮುದ್ಭವಮ್ |
ತಸ್ಮಾತ್ ಸರ್ವಗತಂ ಬ್ರಹ್ಮ ನಿತ್ಯಂ ಯಜ್ಞೇ ಪ್ರತಿಷ್ಠಿತಮ್ || ೩.೧೫ ||

karma brahmOdbhavaM viddhi brahmAkShara samudbhavam |
tasmAt sarvagataM brahma nityaM yaj~jE pratiShThitam || 3.15 ||

You should know that Karma has its source in Brahman; Brahman has its source in Akshara; The all-pervading Brahman is ever established in Yajna.

Brahman or the Supreme Lord from whom all activity proceeds, is revealed by the Vedas (also called "akshara" or the imperishable or the eternal testimony). Only when duty is known as it is through the Vedas, the Brahman enables the jeeva to do the righteous duty. That Brahman is to be revealed to us through yajna, since He is always present in it. So by performing yajna, the person is contributing to the revelation of the Supreme Being, in addition to contributing to the well being of all creatures.


एवं प्रवर्तितं चक्रं न अनुवर्तयति इह यः ।
अघायुः इन्द्रिय-आरामः मॊघं पार्थ स जीवति ॥ ३.१६ ॥

ಏವಂ ಪ್ರವರ್ತಿತಂ ಚಕ್ರಂ ನ ಅನುವರ್ತಯತಿ ಇಹ ಯಃ |
ಅಘಾಯುಃ ಇಂದ್ರಿಯ-ಆರಾಮಃ ಮೋಘಂ ಪಾರ್ಥ ಸ ಜೀವತಿ || ೩.೧೬ ||

EvaM pravartitaM chakraM na anuvartayati iha yaH |
aghAyuH iMdriya-ArAmaH mOghaM pArtha sa jeevati || 3.16 ||
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He who does not contribute to the working of the wheel that has been thus set in motion, (he who does not discharge his share of duties enjoined upon him), he is sinful of life, he finds pleasure in the objects of senses, his life is a waste, O Partha.


यः तु आत्म रतिः एव स्यात् आत्म तृप्तः च मानवः ।
आत्मनि एव च सन्तुष्टः तस्य कार्यं न विद्यतॆ ॥ ३.१७ ॥

ಯಃ ತು ಆತ್ಮ ರತಿಃ ಏವ ಸ್ಯಾತ್ ಆತ್ಮ ತೃಪ್ತಃ ಚ ಮಾನವಃ |
ಆತ್ಮನಿ ಏವ ಚ ಸಂತುಷ್ಟಃ ತಸ್ಯ ಕಾರ್ಯಂ ನ ವಿದ್ಯತೇ || ೩.೧೭ ||

yaH tu Atma ratiH Eva syAt Atma tRuptaH cha mAnavaH |
Atmani Eva cha saMtuShTaH tasya kAryaM na vidyatE || 3.17 ||

Whereas, for him who, perfect in wisdom (immersed in meditation) may be rejoiced in Atman alone, and be contented with Atman, and fixed in Atman alone, be full of Supreme bliss - for him there is nothing to do

(Throughout the verse, the word "Atman" denotes the paramAtman, the Supreme Being)

(The intense meditation called asamprajnAta samAdhi is possible only for him to whom the Lord has revealed Himself; such a person, in that state of meditation, has no other duty to perform and has none to violate)

If every one is bound to perform duties laid down in the scriptures, then what about the persons who are in a state of samadhi? These people spend days together in contemplation of God utterly unaware of what goes on in the outer world. They have idea neither of the sunrise nor of the sunset. It is impossible for them to perform the duties prescribed for the various times of the day. Can they be condemned for this? Sri Krishna has an answer for this.

yaH tu Atma ratiH Eva syAt Atma tRuptaH cha mAnavaH |
Atmani Eva cha saMtuShTaH tasya kAryaM na vidyatE || 3.17 ||

(For the person who is absorbed in the contemplation of God in a state of samadhi and who is enjoying the supreme bliss of the intuitive sight of God, there is no compulsion for doing any prescribed duties.) But when he comes out of this samadhi state, he is obliged to perform all the prescribed duties. Only those who are liberated and thus unaffected by the laws of nature (muKta) and those who are in a state of samadhi have no prescribed duties. The teaching of the Gita is that all the rest have to perform the prescribed duties in a spirit of service to God.


न एव तस्य कृतॆन अर्थः न अकृतॆन इह कश्चन ।
न च अस्य सर्वभूतॆषु कश्चित् अर्थ व्यपाश्रयः ॥ ३.१८ ॥

ನ ಏವ ತಸ್ಯ ಕೃತೇನ ಅರ್ಥಃ ನ ಅಕೃತೇನ ಇಹ ಕಶ್ಚನ |
ನ ಚ ಅಸ್ಯ ಸರ್ವಭೂತೇಷು ಕಶ್ಚಿತ್ ಅರ್ಥ ವ್ಯಪಾಶ್ರಯಃ || ೩.೧೮ ||

na Eva tasya kRutEna arthaH na akRutEna iha kashchana |
na cha asya sarvabhUtEShu kashchit artha vyapAshrayaH || 3.18 ||

For him (who is absorbed in intense meditation) there is no purpose to gain by performance (any sacred acts such as yajnas); nor anything to fear from omission; nor is there in the midst of all beings any one that serves any purpose of his.


तस्मात् असक्तः सततं कार्यं कर्म समाचर ।
असक्तः हि आचरन् कर्म परम् आप्नॊति पुरुषः ॥ ३.१९ ॥

ತಸ್ಮಾತ್ ಅಸಕ್ತಃ ಸತತಂ ಕಾರ್ಯಂ ಕರ್ಮ ಸಮಾಚರ |
ಅಸಕ್ತಃ ಹಿ ಆಚರನ್ ಕರ್ಮ ಪರಮ್ ಆಪ್ನೋತಿ ಪುರುಷಃ || ೩.೧೯ ||

tasmAt asaktaH satataM kAryaM karma samAchara |
asaktaH hi Acharan karma param ApnOti puruShaH || 3.19 ||

Therefore, being free from attachment, devotedly perform the duties which ought to be done, always; since, the person who is free from attachments while fulfilling his duties eventually reaches the Supreme


कर्मणि एव हि संसिद्धिं आस्थितः जनक आदयः ।
लॊक संग्रहम् एव अपि सम्पश्यन् कर्तुम् अर्हसि ॥ ३.२० ॥

ಕರ್ಮಣಿ ಏವ ಹಿ ಸಂಸಿದ್ಧಿಂ ಆಸ್ಥಿತಃ ಜನಕ ಆದಯಃ |
ಲೋಕ ಸಂಗ್ರಹಂ ಏವ ಅಪಿ ಸಂಪಶ್ಯನ್ ಕರ್ತುಮ್ ಅರ್ಹಸಿ || ೩.೨೦ ||

karmaNi Eva hi saMsiddhiM AsthitaH janaka AdayaH |
lOka saMgrahaM Eva api saMpashyan kartum arhasi || 3.20 ||

It is well known that King Janaka and other Royal sages attained moksha as well as wisdom in their earlier stage only by performing the prescribed duties. (Though release is vouchsafed for knowledge alone, still the wise do practise duties for securing enhancement of Bliss in Heaven.) Besides, even for the sake of guidance to the world, it is fit that you should do your duty.


यत् यत् आचरति श्रॆष्ठः तत् तत् एव इतर जनः ।
सः यत् प्रमाणं कुरुतॆ लॊकः तत् अनुवर्ततॆ ॥ ३.२१ ॥

ಯತ್ ಯತ್ ಆಚರತಿ ಶ್ರೇಷ್ಠಃ ತತ್ ತತ್ ಏವ ಇತರ ಜನಃ |
ಸಃ ಯತ್ ಪ್ರಮಾಣಂ ಕುರುತೇ ಲೋಕಃ ತತ್ ಅನುವರ್ತತೇ || ೩.೨೧ ||

yat yat Acharati shrEShThaH tat tat Eva itara janaH |
saH yat pramANaM kurutE lOkaH tat anuvartatE || 3.21 ||

(How does his observance of duty become guidance to the world? This is answered in this verse)

Whatsoever a great man does, the other men also do; whatsoever he respects as authority, the world also follows the same.


न मॆ पार्थ अस्ति कर्तव्यं त्रिषु लॊकॆषु किञ्चन ।
न अनवाप्तम् अवाप्तव्यं वर्त एव च कर्मणि ॥ ३.२२ ॥

ನ ಮೇ ಪಾರ್ಥ ಅಸ್ತಿ ಕರ್ತವ್ಯಂ ತ್ರಿಷು ಲೋಕೇಷು ಕಿಂಚನ |
ನ ಅನವಾಪ್ತಂ ಅವಾಪ್ತವ್ಯಂ ವರ್ತ ಏವ ಚ ಕರ್ಮಣಿ || ೩.೨೨ ||

na mE pArtha asti kartavyaM triShu lOkEShu kiMchana |
na anavAptaM avAptavyaM varta Eva cha karmaNi || 3.22 ||

O Partha, there is nothing for Me to do; in the three worlds there is nothing unattained that might be attained by Me; still I am actually at work.
(Lord Krishna has no purpose whatsoever to achieve; simply out of mercy He is constantly doing something for the benefit of the world)


यदि हि अहं न वर्तॆयं जातु कर्मणि अतन्द्रितः ।
मम वर्त्म अनुवर्तन्तॆ मनुष्याः पार्थ सर्वशः ॥ ३.२३ ॥

ಯದಿ ಹಿ ಅಹಂ ನ ವರ್ತೇಯಂ ಜಾತು ಕರ್ಮಣಿ ಅತಂದ್ರಿತಃ |
ಮಮ ವರ್ತ್ಮ ಅನುವರ್ತಂತೇ ಮನುಷ್ಯಾಃ ಪಾರ್ಥ ಸರ್ವಶಃ || ೩.೨೩ ||

yadi hi ahaM na vartEyaM jAtu karmaNi ataMdritaH |
mama vartma anuvartaMtE manuShyAH pArtha sarvashaH || 3.23 ||

Sri Krishna says: "I am constantly doing something to the world; I am not quiet. For, if I did not continue to work ever unwearied, O Partha, all men would follow my path !
(That is, men would make Me as their example and cease to do their duties)"


उत्सीदॆयुः इमॆ लॊकाः न कुर्यां कर्म चॆत् अहम् ।
सङ्करस्य च कर्ता स्याम् उपहन्याम् इमाः प्रजाः ॥ ३.२४ ॥

ಉತ್ಸೀದೇಯುಃ ಇಮೇ ಲೋಕಾಃ ನ ಕುರ್ಯಾಂ ಕರ್ಮ ಚೇತ್ ಅಹಮ್ |
ಸಂಕರಸ್ಯ ಚ ಕರ್ತಾ ಸ್ಯಾಮ್ ಉಪಹನ್ಯಾಮ್ ಇಮಾಃ ಪ್ರಜಾಃ || ೩.೨೪ ||

utseedEyuH imE lOkAH na kuryAM karma chEt aham |
saMkarasya cha kartA syAm upahanyAm imAH prajAH || 3.24 ||

If I do not perform 'karma' [then all men also would cease to do their duties] and then these worlds would perish or fall into misery for omission of duties; then I would become the author of confusion of castes and I would be destroying these creatures. (when duties are abandoned, the differences between castes would be wiped out, leading to 'sankara')


सक्ताः कर्मणि अविद्वांसः यथा कुर्वन्ति भारत ।
कुर्यात् विद्वान् तथा असक्तः चिकीर्षुः लॊकसङ्ग्रहम् ॥ ३.२५ ॥

ಸಕ್ತಾಃ ಕರ್ಮಣಿ ಅವಿದ್ವಾಂಸಃ ಯಥಾ ಕುರ್ವಂತಿ ಭಾರತ |
ಕುರ್ಯಾತ್ ವಿದ್ವಾನ್ ತಥಾ ಅಸಕ್ತಃ ಚಿಕೀರ್ಷುಃ ಲೋಕಸಂಗ್ರಹಮ್ || ೩.೨೫ ||

saktAH karmaNi avidvAMsaH yathA kurvaMti bhArata |
kuryAt vidvAn tathA asaktaH chikeerShuH lOkasaMgraham || 3.25 ||

If the wise man also should perform duties with the same attachment as the ignorant, the action of both could not then differ; this supposition is amended in the above verse.

Just as the ignorant, full of attachments perform duties, O Bharata, so also the man of wisdom free of attachments should perform, intent upon guiding the world.

Attachment or its absence makes the difference between the work of an ignorant and that of a wise.


न बुद्धि भॆदं जनयॆत् अज्ञानां कर्मसङ्गिनाम् ।
जॊषयॆत् सर्वकर्माणि विद्वान् युक्तः समाचरन् ॥ ३.२६ ॥

ನ ಬುದ್ಧಿ ಭೇದಂ ಜನಯೇತ್ ಅಜ್ಞಾನಾಂ ಕರ್ಮಸಂಗಿನಾಮ್ |
ಜೋಷಯೇತ್ ಸರ್ವಕರ್ಮಾಣಿ ವಿದ್ವಾನ್ ಯುಕ್ತಃ ಸಮಾಚರನ್ || ೩.೨೬ ||

na buddhi bhEdaM janayEt aj~jAnAM karmasaMginAm |
jOShayEt sarvakarmANi vidvAn yuktaH samAcharan || 3.26 ||

The wise man should not bring about change of opinion in the ignorant adhering to action; on the other hand, wise man should himself practise with devotion and cause them to do all the duties.

Ignorant: those who do not understand the nature of God


प्रकृतॆः क्रियमाणानि गुणैः कर्माणि सर्वशः ।
अहंकारविमूढात्माः कर्ता अहं इति मन्यतॆ ॥ ३.२७ ॥

ಪ್ರಕೃತೇಃ ಕ್ರಿಯಮಾಣಾನಿ ಗುಣೈಃ ಕರ್ಮಾಣಿ ಸರ್ವಶಃ |
ಅಹಂಕಾರವಿಮೂಢಾತ್ಮಾಃ ಕರ್ತಾ ಅಹಂ ಇತಿ ಮನ್ಯತೇ || ೩.೨೭ ||

prakRutEH kriyamANAni guNaiH karmANi sarvashaH |
ahaMkAravimUDhAtmAH kartA ahaM iti manyatE || 3.27 ||

In respect of all actions brought about by the qualities of nature, the jeeva deluded by ahankara thinks that "I am the doer"

The ignorant man thinks that he himself is the independent and absolute agent with regard to activities brought about by the Supreme Lord in accordance with the qualities of the soul


तत्ववित् तु महाबाहुः गुणकर्मविभागॊः ।
गुणः गुणॆषु वर्तन्त इति मत्वा न सज्जतॆ ॥ ३.२८ ॥

ತತ್ವವಿತ್ ತು ಮಹಾಬಾಹುಃ ಗುಣಕರ್ಮವಿಭಾಗೋಃ |
ಗುಣಃ ಗುಣೇಷು ವರ್ತಂತ ಇತಿ ಮತ್ವಾ ನ ಸಜ್ಜತೇ || ೩.೨೮ ||

tatvavit tu mahAbAhuH guNakarmavibhAgOH |
guNaH guNEShu vartaMta iti matvA na sajjatE || 3.28 ||

Whereas, O the mighty-armed, a wise man who conclusively understands that the jeeva is in no way the absolute agent, but always depends upon the Lord and other forces directed by Him, therefore forms no attachment. i.e., he does not falsely attribute to himself the authorship of any activity and does not thereby plunge himself in samsara.


प्रकृतॆः गुणसम्मूढाः सज्जन्तॆ गुणकर्मसु ।
तान् अकृत्स्नविदः मन्दान् कृत्स्नवित् न विचालयॆत् ॥ ३.२९ ॥

ಪ್ರಕೃತೇಃ ಗುಣಸಮ್ಮೂಢಾಃ ಸಜ್ಜಂತೇ ಗುಣಕರ್ಮಸು |
ತಾನ್ ಅಕೃತ್ಸ್ನವಿದಃ ಮಂದಾನ್ ಕೃತ್ಸ್ನವಿತ್ ನ ವಿಚಾಲಯೇತ್ || ೩.೨೯ ||

prakRutEH guNasammUDhAH sajjaMtE guNakarmasu |
tAn akRutsnavidaH maMdAn kRutsnavit na vichAlayEt || 3.29 ||

Should the ignorant who claim to be themselves the absolute agents be instructed and corrected by the wise? To this question, the Lord says:

Those deluded by the qualities of prakriti and mistaken with regard to them become strongly attached to the qualities and their own activities; he who has perfect understanding should not unsettle those dull beings lacking knowledge (i.e., the wise should not try to change their course)


मयि सर्वाणि कर्माणि सन्यस्य अध्यात्मचॆतसा ।
निराशिः निर्ममः भूत्वा युध्यस्व विगतज्वरः ॥ ३.३० ॥

ಮಯಿ ಸರ್ವಾಣಿ ಕರ್ಮಾಣಿ ಸನ್ಯಸ್ಯ ಆಧ್ಯಾತ್ಮಚೇತಸಾ |
ನಿರಾಶಿಃ ನಿರ್ಮಮಃ ಭೂತ್ವಾ ಯುಧ್ಯಸ್ವ ವಿಗತಜ್ವರಃ || ೩.೩೦ ||

mayi sarvANi karmANi sanyasya AdhyAtmachEtasA |
nirAshiH nirmamaH bhUtvA yudhyasva vigatajvaraH || 3.30 ||

Having thus distinguished the acts of the wise from those of the ignorant, the former being characterized by the absence of attachment or false notions, the Lord now tells Arjuna that he is among the wise, and should similarly discharge his duties.

With the mind devoted to the Supreme Atman, free from desires and from the false notion of self, and having securely placed all the actions in Me, you fight, free from anxiety.


यॆ मॆ मतं इदं नित्यं अनुतिष्ठन्ति मानवः ।
श्रद्धावन्तः अनसूयन्तः मुच्यन्तॆ तॆ अपि कर्मभिः ॥ ३.३१ ॥

ಯೇ ಮೇ ಮತಂ ಇದಂ ನಿತ್ಯಂ ಅನುತಿಷ್ಠಂತಿ ಮಾನವಃ |
ಶ್ರದ್ಧಾವಂತಃ ಅನಸೂಯಂತಃ ಮುಚ್ಯಂತೇ ತೇ ಅಪಿ ಕರ್ಮಭಿಃ || ೩.೩೧ ||

yE mE mataM idaM nityaM anutiShThaMti mAnavaH |
shraddhAvaMtaH anasUyaMtaH muchyaMtE tE api karmabhiH || 3.31 ||

The Lord points out the consequences of abiding by or neglecting what He has taught

Those sensible men who, full of faith, seeing no fault in it, constantly follow this teaching of mine, they too obtain release by means of actions.


यॆ तु एतत् अभ्यसूयन्तः न अनुतिष्ठन्ति मॆ मतम् ।
सर्वज्ञानविमूढान् तान् विद्धि नष्टान् अचॆतसः ॥ ३.३२ ॥

ಯೇ ತು ಏತತ್ ಅಭ್ಯಸೂಯಂತಃ ನ ಅನುತಿಷ್ಠಂತಿ ಮೇ ಮತಮ್ |
ಸರ್ವಜ್ಞಾನವಿಮೂಢಾನ್ ತಾನ್ ವಿದ್ಧಿ ನಷ್ಟಾನ್ ಅಚೇತಸಃ || ೩.೩೨ ||

yE tu Etat abhyasUyaMtaH na anutiShThaMti mE matam |
sarvaj~jAnavimUDhAn tAn viddhi naShTAn achEtasaH || 3.32 ||

But those who find fault with this teaching of mine, and neglect it, they are devoid of discrimination (having perverse notions of things to be known), entirely deluded as to all knowledge and altogether lost (doomed to sufferings in hell)


सदृशं चॆष्टतॆ स्वस्याः प्रकृतॆः ज्ञानवान् अपि ।
प्रकृतिं यान्ति भूतानि निग्रहः किं करिष्यति ॥ ३.३३ ॥

ಸದೃಶಂ ಚೇಷ್ಟತೇ ಸ್ವಸ್ಯಾಃ ಪ್ರಕೃತೇಃ ಜ್ಞಾನವಾನ್ ಅಪಿ |
ಪ್ರಕೃತಿಂ ಯಾಂತಿ ಭೂತಾನಿ ನಿಗ್ರಹಃ ಕಿಂ ಕರಿಷ್ಯತಿ || ೩.೩೩ ||

sadRushaM chEShTatE svasyAH prakRutEH j~jAnavAn api |
prakRutiM yAMti bhUtAni nigrahaH kiM kariShyati || 3.33 ||

If it is true that the adoption of the teaching gives moksha and its neglect brings destruction, then why is it that the entire world does not carefully follow the course? For this, the Lord says:

Even the man with correct understanding and definite notions acts only in that manner which is most accordant with the likes and dislikes he has inherited (by the influence of prakriti, samskaras and impressions from past lifetimes) ; much less therefore need to be said of the ignorant. Inherent tendencies overpower the knowledge that is imparted to them. Therefore the restraint of mind is by itself not a sufficient force to resist the inherited tendencies.


इन्द्रियस्य इन्द्रियस्यार्थॆ रागद्वॆषौ व्यवस्थितौ ।
तयॊः न वशम् आगच्छॆत् तौ हि अस्य परिपन्थिनौ ॥ ३.३४ ॥

ಇಂದ್ರಿಯಸ್ಯ ಇಂದ್ರಿಯಸ್ಯಾರ್ಥೇ ರಾಗದ್ವೇಷೌ ವ್ಯವಸ್ಥಿತೌ |
ತಯೋಃ ನ ವಶಂ ಆಗಚ್ಛೇತ್ ತೌ ಹಿ ಅಸ್ಯ ಪರಿಪಂಥಿನೌ || ೩.೩೪ ||

iMdriyasya iMdriyasyArthE rAgadvEShau vyavasthitau |
tayOH na vashaM AgacChEt tau hi asya paripaMthinau || 3.34 ||

If all beings act only in conformity with their own nature and if the restraint of mind serves no purpose, then the rule of conduct laid down in verse 3.30 and the declaration of consequences of its observance or neglect would be devoid of purpose. To this objection the Lord says:

With reference to the object of every sense, Like and Dislike necessarily rise up; one should not come under the power of both of these; since they are his obstructers.

Though the restraint of mind may not at once appear useful, still he should endeavor not to come under the influence of these passions; since they stand in the way of his attaining the highest good.


श्रॆयान् स्वधर्मः विगुणः परधर्मात् सु-अनुष्ठितात् ।
स्वधर्मॆ निधनं श्रॆयः परधर्मः भय आवहः ॥ ३.३५ ॥

ಶ್ರೇಯಾನ್ ಸ್ವಧರ್ಮಃ ವಿಗುಣಃ ಪರಧರ್ಮಾತ್ ಸು-ಅನುಷ್ಠಿತಾತ್ |
ಸ್ವಧರ್ಮೇ ನಿಧನಂ ಶ್ರೇಯಃ ಪರಧರ್ಮಃ ಭಯ ಆವಹಃ || ೩.೩೫ ||

shrEyAn swadharmaH viguNaH paradharmAt su-anuShThitAt |
swadharmE nidhanaM shrEyaH paradharmaH bhaya AvahaH || 3.35 ||

Performing one's own duty is more meritorious even if it is defective, than perfectly performing the duty of another. It is better even to die doing one's own duty, since the duty of another brings fear.

One's own duty: The duty which one has to perform as enjoined upon caste or order (rank in the society) one belongs to.
Defective: Not duly performed in all its details
Duty of another: The duty laid down for some other caste and order
Brings fear: Transgression and violation of the sacred laws, for which punishment awaits


अर्जुन उवाच :-

अथ कॆन प्रयुक्तः अयं पापं चरति पुरुषः ।
अनिच्छन् अपि वार्ष्णॆय बलात् इव नियॊजितः ॥ ३.३६ ॥

ಅರ್ಜುನ ಉವಾಚ :-

ಅಥ ಕೇನ ಪ್ರಯುಕ್ತಃ ಅಯಂ ಪಾಪಂ ಚರತಿ ಪುರುಷಃ |
ಅನಿಚ್ಛನ್ ಅಪಿ ವಾರ್ಷ್ಣೇಯ ಬಲಾತ್ ಇವ ನಿಯೋಜಿತಃ || ೩.೩೬ ||

arjuna uvAcha :-

atha kEna prayuktaH ayaM pApaM charati puruShaH |
anicChan api vArShNEya balAt iva niyOjitaH || 3.36 ||

Arjuna says: O Varshneya, then impelled by whom does the person commit sin, unwilling though he be, as if he were constrained by force?

What is the force next to the Lord and the gods that impels man to action, especially the evil action? Which is it that is so strong as to overwhelm him and hurry him into evil ways?


श्री भगवान् उवाच :-

कामः एषः क्रॊधः एषः रजॊगुण-समुद्भवः ।
महाशनः महापाप्मा विद्धि एनं इह वैरिणम् ॥ ३.३७ ॥

ಶ್ರೀ ಭಗವಾನ್ ಉವಾಚ :-

ಕಾಮಃ ಏಷಃ ಕ್ರೋಧಃ ಏಷಃ ರಜೋಗುಣ-ಸಮುದ್ಭವಃ |
ಮಹಾಶನಃ ಮಹಾಪಾಪ್ಮಾ ವಿದ್ಧಿ ಏನಂ ಇಹ ವೈರಿಣಮ್ || ೩.೩೭ ||

shree bhagavAn uvAcha :-

kAmaH EShaH krOdhaH EShaH rajOguNa-samudbhavaH |
mahAshanaH mahApApmA viddhi EnaM iha vairiNam || 3.37 ||

Sri Krishna said: It is lust, it is anger, sprung out of the quality of Rajas; he is unquenchable, he is the great sinner; know him to be the enemy

Is it possible to extinguish lust by giving all that is urged by it? The Lord in answer describes its character to show the impossibility of such a course. The more the gratification is offered, the more it craves, and satisfaction is impossible. The lust is the prolific source of all sinful dispositions and activities, coming in the way of achieving the high purpose of human life, here and hereafter.


धूमॆन आव्रियतॆ वह्निः यथा आदर्शः मलॆन च ।
यथा उल्बॆन आवृतः गर्भः तथा तॆन इदम् आवृतम् ॥ ३.३८ ॥

ಧೂಮೇನ ಆವ್ರಿಯತೇ ವಹ್ನಿಃ ಯಥಾ ಆದರ್ಶಃ ಮಲೇನ ಚ |
ಯಥಾ ಉಲ್ಬೇನ ಆವೃತಃ ಗರ್ಭಃ ತಥಾ ತೇನ ಇದಂ ಆವೃತಮ್ || ೩.೩೮ ||

dhUmEna AvriyatE vahniH yathA AdarshaH malEna cha |
yathA ulbEna AvRutaH garbhaH tathA tEna idaM AvRutam || 3.38 ||

Just as the flame is covered with smoke, as a mirror is covered with dust, as an embryo is wrapped in amnion, so is this (the true knowledge with respect of the Supreme) enveloped by that (lust or desire)


आवृतं ज्ञानं एतॆन ज्ञानिनः नित्यवैरिणा ।
कामरूपॆण कौन्तॆय दुष्पूरॆण अनलॆन च ॥ ३.३९ ॥

ಆವೃತಂ ಜ್ಞಾನಂ ಏತೇನ ಜ್ಞಾನಿನಃ ನಿತ್ಯವೈರಿಣಾ |
ಕಾಮರೂಪೇಣ ಕೌಂತೇಯ ದುಷ್ಪೂರೇಣ ಅನಲೇನ ಚ || ೩.೩೯ ||

AvRutaM j~jAnaM EtEna j~jAninaH nityavairiNA |
kAmarUpENa kauMtEya duShpUrENa analEna cha || 3.39 ||

Even the knowledge of a learned man is completely obscured by this constant enemy in the form of lust, O Arjuna, who is hard to gratify and is never satisfied.

When overwhelmed by lust, even the knowledge acquired by the study of scriptures cannot become sufficiently firm and clear to enable the individual to rise to that serenity of mind and stability of conviction, that are necessary for receiving the light of revelation.


इंद्रियाणि मनः बुद्धिः अस्य अधिष्ठानं उच्यतॆ ।
एतैः विमॊहयति एषः ज्ञानं आवृत्य दॆहिनम् ॥ ३.४० ॥

ಇಂದ್ರಿಯಾಣಿ ಮನಃ ಬುದ್ಧಿಃ ಅಸ್ಯ ಅಧಿಷ್ಠಾನಂ ಉಚ್ಯತೇ |
ಏತೈಃ ವಿಮೋಹಯತಿ ಏಷಃ ಜ್ಞಾನಂ ಆವೃತ್ಯ ದೇಹಿನಮ್ || ೩.೪೦ ||

iMdriyANi manaH buddhiH asya adhiShThAnaM uchyatE |
EtaiH vimOhayati EShaH j~jAnaM AvRutya dEhinam || 3.40 ||

The senses, the mind, and the thought are said to be his (lust or desire) abode; by means of these, obstructing knowledge, he deludes the dweller in the body.

Senses are the strong hold of desire; desire brings them in contact with the objects, bewilders the mind & thought and prevents the acquisition of true knowledge; or if acquired, renders it inefficient for the higher purpose.


So, should I understand the undercurrent of the shlokas, here, this way?

"Brahmacharya is the best ashrama to attain knowledge."

But, I have heard that 'GRuhastaashrama' is the best for humans, because all the other ashramaas are tough for the pursuit.

So, what is right?


Neither the above said shlokas give any hint about which of the ashramas is superior, nor is it true that people who accept gRuhastha ashrama are driven with lust. Here the word "lust" only means craving or overwhelming desire or intense eagerness to satisfy the sense organs.

BG does not preach that we should not have any desire whatsoever. BG tells us only to shun such desires which come in the way of the acquisition of true knowledge; getting married is NOT one of those. Even in gRuhastha ashrama one can attain knowledge which takes him/her towards the final destination.

Others may please add to what I have written, and correct me if I am wrong.


Thank you.


तस्मात् त्वं इन्द्रियाणि आदौ नियम्य भरत-ऋषभ ।
पाप्मानं प्रजहि हि एनं ज्ञान विज्ञान नाशनम् ॥ ३.४१ ॥

ತಸ್ಮಾತ್ ತ್ವಂ ಇಂದ್ರಿಯಾಣಿ ಆದೌ ನಿಯಮ್ಯ ಭರತ-ಋಷಭ |
ಪಾಪ್ಮಾನಂ ಪ್ರಜಹಿ ಹಿ ಏನಂ ಜ್ಞಾನ ವಿಜ್ಞಾನ ನಾಶನಮ್ || ೩.೪೧ ||

tasmAt tvaM iMdriyANi Adau niyamya bharata-RuShabha |
pApmAnaM prajahi hi EnaM j~jAna vij~jAna nAshanam || 3.41 ||

Therefore, O the Best of the Bharatas, having first restrained the senses, you must slay him (lust) out, the evil thing; because, he is destructive of both knowledge and wisdom.


इन्द्रियाणि पराणि आहुः इन्द्रियॆभ्यः परं मनः ।
मनसः तु परा बुद्धिः यः बुद्धॆः परतः तु सः ॥ ३.४२ ॥

ಇಂದ್ರಿಯಾಣಿ ಪರಾಣಿ ಆಹುಃ ಇಂದ್ರಿಯೇಭ್ಯಃ ಪರಂ ಮನಃ |
ಮನಸಃ ತು ಪರಾ ಬುದ್ಧಿಃ ಯಃ ಬುದ್ಧೇಃ ಪರತಃ ತು ಸಃ || ೩.೪೨ ||

iMdriyANi parANi AhuH iMdriyEbhyaH paraM manaH |
manasaH tu parA buddhiH yaH buddhEH parataH tu saH || 3.42 ||

The senses are greater than the body, the mind is greater than senses, buddhi is greater than even mind, but He (the Supreme Lord) is far greater than buddhi.


एवं बुद्धॆः परं बुद्ध्वा संस्तभ्य आत्मानम् आत्मना ।
जहि शत्रुं महाबाहॊ कामरूपं दुरासदम् ॥ ३.४३ ॥

ಏವಂ ಬುದ್ಧೇಃ ಪರಂ ಬುದ್ಧ್ವಾ ಸಂಸ್ತಭ್ಯ ಆತ್ಮಾನಮ್ ಆತ್ಮನಾ |
ಜಹಿ ಶತ್ರುಂ ಮಹಾಬಾಹೋ ಕಾಮರೂಪಂ ದುರಾಸದಮ್ || ೩.೪೩ ||

EvaM buddhEH paraM buddhvA saMstabhya AtmAnam AtmanA |
jahi shatruM mahAbAhO kAmarUpaM durAsadam || 3.43 ||

Having thus perceived Him, who is higher than buddhi, and having restrained the mind by reason, O the mighty armed, slay the enemy called desire (or lust) which is difficult to overcome.

Thus ends "Karma Yoga", the Third chapter of Sri Bhagavadgeeta

shree bhArateeramaNa mukhyaprANa antargata shree krishNArpaNam astu

18 March, 2010

Sri Vyasa teertha

Sri Vyasa teertha

Source: dvaita dot org
Authors: Narahari S. Pujar, Shrisha Rao and H P Raghunandana
Reference: Dr. B N K Sharma, "History of the Dvaita School of Vedanta and its Literature", Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi (1981)

Sri Vyasa teertha (1460 - 1539) is one of the greatest scholars of tattvavada. He has written detailed commentaries on the works of Srimad Ananda teertha and Sri Jayateertha. His works are considered to be of the highest significance, particularly because it is accepted even by his opponents that his understanding of their schools is second to none.

Sri Vyasa teertha was the 5th peeThAdhipati in the lineage of PoorvAdi mutt, after Sri Rajendra teertha, Sri Jayadhwaja teertha, Sri Purushottama teertha and Sri Brahmanya teertha. After his time, PoorvAdi mutt was more popularly called Vyasaraja mutt.

Sri Vyasa teertha also keeps a tempo that is hard for the less skilled to even conceive of, let alone match. His logic is exceptionally hard to beat, because of his uncanny knack of knowing exactly what the opponent is going to say, and using this information to lead the opponent on to traps of logic that are dozens of steps deep, and impossible to work through or around.

In addition to his pellucid and luminescent writings, Sri Vyasa teertha is also known for the influence he had on the Vijayanagara empire, especially for the fact that it was under his tutelage that it had its heyday, and produced its greatest ruler.

Perhaps even more importantly, it is noted that he was responsible for providing a healthy atmosphere in which the Hari-dasa tradition could sprout and flourish; he disregarded all highbrow disapprobation of the lower castes, as he showed by his acceptance of the low-caste Kanakadasa as a shishya, on par with his other students, and by his even arranging to prove to them that Kanakadasa was a greater devotee than any of them.


Sri Vyasa teertha was born in the year 1460 in Bannur which is now in the Mysuru district in the modern Karnataka state. He, his brother and sister were born as a result of the blessings of Sri Brahmanya teertha.

Education and sanyasa deekshe

The young Yatiraja (the future Sri Vyasa teertha) was presented to Brahmanya teertha after he completed the comprehensive study of subjects like kavya, naTaka, alankara, and vyakaraNa.

Having been impressed with the young Yatiraja's quick mind and great aptitude for learning, Brahmanya teertha secretly meditated to ordain him into the sanyasa order. Yatiraja, though respectful of his Guru, had his doubts about receiving such deeksha, and finally consented after receiving a vision in which Vishnu Himself instructed him not to try to avert his destiny.

Study at Kanchi and Mulbagal

Shortly after Yatiraja's ordination as Sri Vyasa teertha, Sri Brahmanya teertha passed away. Sri Vyasa teertha left for Kanchi after his succession to the peeTha and spent many years there studying the six systems of philosophy, and thus gave the finishing touches to his mastery of subjects like Advaita, Vishishtadvaita, and Navya-Nyaya, in addition to tattvavada.

After Kanchi, he continued his studies at Mulbagal which was the seat of Sripadaraja and a hub for learning. There he studied Vedanta for about five to six years. Around this time, he distinguished himself at the court of Salva Narasimha at Chandragiri by winning several debates against renowned opponents.

Worship of Lord Shreenivasa at Tirupati

During this time he was entrusted the worship of Lord Srinivasa at Tirupati, a task that he performed for twelve years, from 1486-1498.

Invitation from Vijayanagara empire

Sri Vyasa teertha left for Vijayanagara after persistent invitations by its royalty and ministers, and stayed there for the major part of the rest of his life.

Among the several debates he had at Vijayanagara, a notable one is that with Basava Bhatta of Kalinga which lasted for thirty days, before Basava Bhatta lost comprehensively.

However the 'golden period' of Sri Vyasa teertha's life started after Krishnadevaraya ascended the throne of Vijayanagara, for what were the one-and-twenty greatest years of the kingdom's history.

Krishnadevaraya had a lot of regard for Sri Vyasa teertha, as is evident from the historical evidence that shows Krishnadevaraya regarded Sri Vyasa teertha as his Kuladevata, as well as from several honorific references in the writings of Krishnadevaraya.

Sri Vyasa teertha is responsible for the continuation of the high regard and recognition earned by the system started by Srimad Ananda teertha. He has been respected by many scholars from other schools, including the likes of Appaya Dikshita, Pakshadhara Mishra, Madhusudana Saraswati, and Basava Bhatta. He is known for his warm-heartedness and sympathy even toward proponents of other systems of philosophy, while being a staunch Madhva himself.

In fact, his elucidation of the principles of Advaita and Vishishtadvaita were so outstanding that he even had pupils of these doctrines, who learnt those from him in preference to learning it from a guru in their own tradition.
Works by Sri Vyasa teertha :-

> nyAyAmRuta
> tAtparya chandrika (Commentary on Jayateertha's tatvaprakAshika)
> tarka tAnDava
> mAyAvAda khanDana mandAramanjari
> upAdhi khanDana mandAramanjari
> prapancha mitthyatva anumAna khanDana mandAramanjari
> tattva viveka mandAramanjari
> bhedOjjeevana
> sat-tarka vilaasa

Among his nine major works, his most important ones are Nyayamruta, TarkatanDava, and Chandrika, collectively known as Vyasa-traya. In his magnum opus Nyayamruta, he justifies the philosophy of tattvavada and shows that monism is untenable on every ground, and that the reality of the world cannot be rejected, compromised, or diluted for any reason -- physical, rational, or spiritual.

The TarkatanDava is a refutation of the principles of Nyaya-Vaisheshika. Tatparya-Chandrika is a commentary on Sri Jayateertha's Tattvaprakashika and deals with the Sutra-Prasthana of tattvavada. It is, in fact, a significant contribution to the literature on the analysis of the Brahma-Sutra, because it makes an in-depth comparative study of the Bhashyas of Shankara, Ramanuja, and Ananda teertha.

Prameya shloka

The prameya shloka by Sri Vyasa Teertha lays out nine important tenets, all seemingly simple on the surface but having a world of depth, as the prameyas of Tattvavaada. These prameyas are consistent among themselves, and are complete in defining Tattvavaada; thus, they give a coherent and unique definition of the whole doctrine.

It is very characteristic of Sri Vyasa teertha to have digested the whole of the corpus of a large number of commentaries, original texts, glosses, etc., and presented a very pithy and yet easy-to-understand statement of the doctrine as presented in all of them.

In reading and analyzing the shloka that explains the prameyas, one finds a faithful echo of many of Srimad Ananda Teertha's statements. Sri Vyasa teertha compromises neither the nature nor the intensity of his master's unequivocal assertions.

His prameya-shloka is thus a faithful recap of the subjects expounded upon by the previous scholars in the tradition, and it may be asserted that a correct understanding of the shloka is equivalent to a grasp of the fundamental tenets of Tattvavaada.

The shloka that lays out the nine prameyas is :

ಶ್ರೀಮನ್ಮಧ್ವಮತೇ ಹರಿಃ ಪರತರಃ ಸತ್ಯಂ ಜಗತ್ ತತ್ವತೋ
ಭೇದೋ ಜೀವಗಣಾಃ ಹರೇರನುಚರಾಃ ನೀಚೊಚ್ಛ ಭಾವಂಗತಾಃ |

ಮುಕ್ತಿರ್ನೈಜಸುಖಾನುಭೂತಿರಮಲಾಭಕ್ತಿಶ್ಚ ತತ್ಸಾಧನಮ್
ಹ್ಯಕ್ಷಾದಿತ್ರಿತಯಂ ಪ್ರಮಾಣಮಖಿಲಾಮ್ನಾಯೈಕವೇದ್ಯೋ ಹರಿಃ ||

shreemanmadhvamatE hariH parataraH satyaM jagat tatvatO
bhEdO jeevagaNAH harEranucharAH neechochCha bhAvaMgatAH |

muktirnaijasukhAnubhUtiramalAbhaktishcha tatsAdhanam
hyakShAditritayaM pramANamakhilAmnAyaikavEdyO hariH ||

Contribution to dAsa sAhitya

He has composed beautiful devotional songs in Kannada, thus contributing significantly to the Dasa-sahitya. He was also the Guru of Purandaradasa and Kanakadasa, two outstanding luminaries of the Hari-dasa tradition, the former also the founder of modern Karnatik music, and is probably the greatest singer-saint in history.

Brindavana pravesha

He cast off his mortal body on the 8th of March, 1539. His Brindavana is at Nava-Vrundavana, which is located on an island in the Tungabhadra river, near Anegondi, very close to Hampi. Here, in the company of eight other eminent Madhva ascetics, he continues to meditate, and to bless devotees with true knowledge.

His ArAdhane is observed on Paalguna mAsa krishna paksha chaturthi

arthikalpitha kalpOyam pratyarthi gajakEsari | vyAsateerthagurur bhUyAdasmadiShTArtha siddhayE ||