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Hari Sarvottama Vayu Jeevottama

A very warm welcome to the blog of Madhwa Brahmins community.
We, Madhwa Brahmins are followers of Jagadguru Sriman Madhwacharya. We originally hail from places in Karnataka and the neighboring states of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Our main dialects are Kannada, Tulu, Marathi, Telugu and Konkani.

A brief background of Jagadguru Sri Madhwacharya:

prathamO hanumAn nAma dviteeyO bheema Eva cha |
pUrNaprajna tRuteeyastu bhagavat kAryasAdhakaH ||

As the above shloka from khila vAyustuti explains, Sri Madhwacharya (also known by the names Poornaprajna and Anandateertha) is the third incarnation of Lord MukhyaprAna Vaayu, after Lord Hanuman and Lord Bheemasena. He is the chief proponent of TattvavAda, popularly known as Dvaita. He was born on Vijayadashami day of 1238 CE at Paajaka Kshetra, a small village near Udupi. He is the 22nd commentator on the Brahma sutras of Lord Sri Veda Vyasa.

Kindly note that this blog contains important topics discussed in our Orkut community and some articles on tattvavAda philosophy. All the topics can be found in the BLOG ARCHIVE (right side)

31 December, 2010

Parashurama kshetra

Parashurama kshetra

Text source: www.dvaita.org

The holy land of Parashuraama

The region in between the Arabian sea and the Western Ghats stretching from Nasik in Maharashtra to Kanyakumari in the southern end of the peninsula is known as Parashurâma-kshetra -- the holy land of Parashurâma.

Parashurâma, an incarnation of Vishnu, appeared on this Earth to eradicate the ruling cruel kshatriya class. Parashurâma engaged in eighteen major battles and three minor ones against the kshatriyas and eliminated them all.

The proximate reason for Parashurâma's wrath was the killing of His father, the sage Jamadagni, by KârtiveeryArjuna, a kshatriya king. This killing symbolized the gross abuse of power that the kshatriya class had become used to at the time. Parashurâma Himself is shown in the Valmiki Ramayana as narrating the circumstances of the kshatriya carnage to Lord Raama (the son of Dasharatha, and another incarnation of Vishnu) as follows:

nyastashastre pitari me tapobala samanvite |

arjuno vidadhe mR^ityuM prAkR^itAH buddhiM AsthitaH || 24 ||

While my father (Jamadagni) was sitting in meditation, with no weapons or arms, the base-minded (Kârtivîrya) Arjuna brought about his death.

vadhamapratirUpaM tu pituH shruttvA sudAruNam |

kShatramutsAdayan.h roshAt.h jAtaM jAtaM anekashaH || 25 ||

Upon hearing of his merciless killing, in retribution I killed generation after generation of kshatriyas, many times.

pR^ithiviiM cha akhilAM prApya kashyapAya mahAtmane |

yaj~nasyAnte tadA rAma dakShiNAM puNya-karmaNe || 26 ||

Having conquered the entire world, I gave away all of it to Kashyapa, the great soul, at the end of a yajnya, as an act of merit. (Va. Ra., Bâla Kânda, Chapter 75)

When the removal of the bestial kshatriyas had finally been accomplished, Parashurâma gifted away to Kashyapa all the lands left behind after their demise. From that time onwards new kingdoms developed under the control of saints and scholars and the responsibility of steering the nation fell into the hands of intellectuals.

With the gifting of all His lands to Kashyapa and the subsequent establishment of all these new kingdoms, Parashurâma then had to find a completely new place for Himself to live in. To this end Parashurâma ordered the king of the oceans thus: `I have to create a new land for my residence. Move away towards the West and stay as far away as my arrows go.'

Parashurâma then shot his arrows and the ocean retreated as ordered. The land thus recovered, which stretches from Maharashtra to Kanyakumari, is known as Parashurâma-kshetra.

Sri Vâdirâja teertha, in his Teertha Prabandha records this oral tradition thus:

karNe padanyasta rucheeriramsuH |

vaaraashivastraM jaghanaaddhi yasyaaH |

amuumuchad.h baaNakareNa bhuumeH |

shriibhaargavaH saa jayati kShitirnaH || (1.6)

The purport of this stylized stanza can be put this way:

'This Parashurâma-kshetra is our country where the Lord reigned happily by removing the blue garment of ocean waters of the Earth through his arrow-like hands.'

Krishnavadhuta, in his champu epic Mandara Maranda observes that the purpose of this incarnation was the eradication of demons.

bhaargavastataH paaThasaaM nidhau |

akshipachchharam shaaravikramaH |

tena tadgataa raakshasaa hataaH |

so.api vaaridhirduurato yayau || (Ma. Ma. ca 1.34)

'Bhârgava Râma, desirous of a unique creation, shot arrows towards the ocean. By the arrows of this great Bhârgava Râma, not only did the ocean retreat, but the demons hiding in the ocean were also vanquished.'

If one should visit Pajakakshetra, the birthplace of Sri Madhva, then one can see for themselves the legacy of these arrows. The whole of this place is made up of hills of granite, and from the temple on the highest hill one can look down to where one of the arrows fell. In the side of the hill there is a deep gouge in the granite which is always full of fresh, clean water.

It used to be the case that the water from this place was used exclusively in the daily rituals of the temple. The water used to be transported up the very steep hill to the temple by men whose family duty such had been for as long as can be remembered. These men had an extremely large physique that enabled them to engage in this arduous duty. There is another on these pools on another site farther away from the temple.

Taulava country

In this Parashurâma-kshetra on the Western Coast of the Indian peninsula, the area lying in the Karnataka state from Kasargod to GokarNa is known as TauLava country. Râjarâjeshwara of the 14th-15th Century A.D. mentions this in his work:

tatraasiinaH shirasi mahati praskhalanmeghabimbe |

pashyaadhastaadvivR^itanayanastaulavaM deSabhaagam |

aagokarNam jaladhivalayenaavR^itam dakShiNena |

brahmaavaasaM nR^ipatiripuNaa jaamadagnyena sR^ishhTam | (Râma Sandesha 42)

'Go to one of the horns of the high peaks of Sahyadri and look down. The clouds float about. Look down further with your eyes wide open. That is the land known as Taulava country. The region spreading from Gokarna further down up to the sea is the abode of the learned people who have mastered the Vedas. This is the new creation of Parashurâma, the enemy of the kshatriya race.'

~~ shree madhwEshArpaNamastu ~~

A brief history of Udupi

A brief history of UDUPI

Text source: www.dvaita.org

The meaning and origin of the word `Udupi':

Udupi is known as oDipu in the Tulu language. Narayana Panditacharya in his notes called Bhâva Prakasha on the Sumadhva Vijaya records thus:

rajatapeeThapurasya oDipu ityapabhraShTa samjnyA

The modern name Udupi must have developed from this ancient folk name.

A different etymology is provided by certain other scholars. According to them the original Sanskrit name is derived from uDupa (uDu 'star' + pa 'lord') -- lord of the stars, namely, the moon.

Udupi then refers to Shiva, who bears the moon on his head. Since there is the ancient temple of Chandramauleeshwara in Udupi, the place may have been known by the name Udupi, after its ancient deity.

The author of the Sumadhva Vijaya opines that the word is of Tulu origin. The word `Udupi' also does not seem to have been associated with Shiva anywhere else in the Sanskrit literature.

Even if the word is to be considered to be originating from a Sanskrit root, one can provide a better explanation and etymology. `Udupi' also means boat or raft in Sanskrit:

uDupaM tu plavaH kolaH

The word `Udupi' can then mean a place to which Lord Krishna came (from Dwârakâ) by boat.

The Tulu word oDipu can also be associated with a more or less similar meaning. There is a temple at Malpe which is known as oDabhAnDeeshvara. There appears to be some kind of relationship between the words oDabhAnDa and oDipu. Its Kannada version is `Udupa'. The root element of all these words is oDepu, meaning "cracking," or "breaking." Until the secret of this word is cracked, the origin of the modern word Udupi will remain shrouded in mystery.

This temple at Malpe is well worth a visit and appears to be of great vintage. It is only a short distance to the beach from the temple and so it is possible to walk to where Sri Madhva saved the ship carrying the icon of Sri Krishna from being wrecked during a storm.

Shivaroopya - Shivalli

The original name of the village of Udupi is Shivalli. Later on an attempt was made to Sanskritize this name into Shivaroopya because Shiva dwelt there. The author of the Sumadhvavijaya refers to this name:

vedAdrisad rajatapeeThapureshvarAbhyAm |

grAmo vibhooshitataraH shivaroopyanAmA || SMV 2-10 ||

"The village stretching up to Indrali Hills in the East (present day Manipal) and presided over by Lord Ananteshwara is known as Shivaroopya."

There is a popular legend which tells us how this ancient village became Shiva's village in ancient times:

King Râmabhoja decided to perform a sacrifice and so began to plough the land in preparation. A serpent was hit by the plough and died on the spot. To atone for this sin the king constructed four shrines in the four corners of the village.

The four serpent shrines are known as muchchilkoDu, mAngoDu, arikoDu and tAngoDu.

Actually these are Skanda shrines. About two miles to the South-East on the way to Alevoor is the muchchilkoDu shrine near KukkikaTTe. This shrine which is under the jurisdiction of Sri Pejawar Mutt has been renovated beautifully and the area looks like a peaceful hermitage.

Another Skanda shrine is located at maangoDu about three miles to the South West of Udupi. This is also renovated nicely.

About three miles to the North-East of Udupi by the side of Puttur temple on the National Highway is the arikoDu shrine. This is in very bad condition as the walls have collapsed. Also, there is no approach road.

The place known as tAngoDu which is supposed to be in the North-East corner of the village has not yet been located. It needs to be identified and renovated.

In the middle of the village King Râmabhoja worshipped Lord Parashurâma in the form of a Shivalinga on a silver seat. This temple is now known to us as Ananteshwara.


When Lord Vishnu took the incarnation of Parashurâma on this Earth he was "trained" by Shiva in the art of archery. To commemorate this student-teacher drama, Lord Vishnu wanted to get himself identified with the linga so that both the teacher and the student were worshipped simultaneously by the devotees. Sriman Narayana, reclining on a serpent, came down to this temple and stayed in the linga. This is a rather unusual incident and the concept of Ananteshwara came to vogue as a result of this.

Sri Vâdirâja teertha, in his masterpiece teertha prabandha extols Ananteshwara in this way:

ivaantaryaamitaaM sveeyaaM priyaan prati nibodhayan |

dayaavaarinidhiH shaiveeM shilaamaashritya shobhate |

eeSasyaaheeSapadaveem bhaasayanniva bhaavineem |

adhyaaste sheshashayanaH snigdhaaM liN^gashilaam || (I.14-15)

'The Almighty Lord got himself merged in this Shivalinga to proclaim to the devotees that he rests in the soul of Shiva also. To prove this cosmic truth Vishnu rests in this Shivalinga.'

Before the birth of Sri Madhva, his father, Nadillâya (a.k.a. Madhya-geha bhaTTa), had worshipped this deity to beget a male child. It is believed that he used to pray to Lord Bhujangashayana enshrined in this idol. Narayana Pandita makes a reference to this in his commentary Bhâva Prakâshika on the Sumadhva Vijaya:

svadarshanoruvratine nisheete |

praaptaaya bhogeendragato hariH prabhuH |

svaM darshayitvaa khalu kuJNjamaadhava |

dvijaaya tadvat.h pratimaaM vyadhaapayat ||

Even now the deity is known as Ananteshwara, Anantâsana and Anantapadmanâbha. `Ananta' means the serpent Shesha. Hence Ananteshwara means the Lord Narayana reclining on a serpent. Ananta is also another name of Lord Vishnu. Lord Vishnu enshrined in the Sivalinga came to be designated as Ananteshwara.

Ananteshwara was a famous temple and pilgrim centre of this region. It was also a centre of Vedantic philosophy and formed a suitable background for the advent of Sriman Madhvacharya.

It was because of this temple that the place was ranked as foremost among the seven centres of pilgrimage. One should not forget that the Nadillaya couple could beget an illustrious son who was destined to be the great Achârya only because of their twelve years of worship at the foot of this deity Bhujangashayana ("the one who reclines on a serpent"). Hence this temple has great historic significance.

Sri Madhva used to sit in the Ananteshwara temple and teach his disciples. Even today the place where he used to sit is considered to be a holy shrine. The plank where he used to sit is still there but there is no icon of Sri Madhva. At one time a beautiful icon had been prepared to be installed here, but when the time of installation came around, Sri Madhva appeared in a dream of a swamiji and ordered, 'Please do not put any stone on me,' thus indicating that he is was always and already present there. To this day the stone icon is kept outside and the devotees offer worship to the seat itself.

This shrine is very difficult for the devotee to see. One is not allowed to enter inside the temple itself, and the only way to see this place is through a small window on the southern side of the outer enclosure of the temple.

The Ananteshwara temple is an amazing place. As one enters from the street, one can see the huge linga which is deep inside the temple and lit by oil lamps. Inside the temple, but closer to the front, there is a small icon of Ganapati. To come here and pay respects to Lord Ananteshwara is a very calming experience and it is very easy for the hours to simply slip by without one noticing it.

When you step back and take in the view at the temple you can only marvel at the huge slabs of granite which make up the roof. It is the largest temple in this region in both its shape and its historic significance.


To the east of the Ananteshwara temple stands a smaller temple wherein presides Shiva, known as chandramauLeeshvara. Because the temple is a very ancient one, precious little is known about its history.

This temple of Chandramauleeshvara is smaller than that of Ananteshwara. To enter this temple one has to descend steps. It appears that originally there must have been a tank in that place which was later filled up with mud and a temple built on top of the fill.

We read in the Madhva Vijaya that the temple was originally known as mooDu devaalaya (mahendra digâlaya). Since it was on the Eastern side of the Chief temple Ananteshwara, it came to be referred to as the Eastern temple.

There is a special tradition the devotees participate in before entering the shrine of Lord Krishna. First they must visit Chandramauleeshvara and then they go on to Ananteshwara. From there they proceed to Sri Krishna Mutt.

Sri Vishvapati Tîrtha in his commentary on the Madhva Vijaya records this custom:

rajatapeeThapure amaraalayadvayaM vartate |

tatra puurvaalayasthaH prathamato namyaH |

pashchimaalayasthaH pashchaannamya iti sampradaaya niyamaH || II.14 ||

'There are two temples, the Eastern one and the Western one. One must first salute Lord Shiva at the Eastern temple and then go to Lord Ananteshwara in the Western temple. This is the custom followed here.'

Even now the Udupi aShTa-maTha Swamijis visit the temple in this order before they ceremoniously take charge of the management of Sri Krishna Mutt during the paryâya festival.

~~ shree madhwEshArpaNamastu ~~

21 November, 2010

Srimad Bhagavadgeeta - Chapter 5

Srimad Bhagavadgeeta - Chapter 5

For chapter 1, click HERE
For chapter 2, click HERE

For chapter 3, click HERE

For chapter 4, click HERE

Chapter 5 - Sanyasa Yoga

S. Subba Rau, "The Bhagavad-Gita, Translation and commentaries in English, according to Sri Madhwacharya's bhashyas" Minerva Press, Madras (1906)


अर्जुन उवाच :-
सन्यासं कर्मणां कृष्ण पुनः यॊगं शंससि
यत् श्रॆयः एतयॊः एकं तन्मॆ ब्रूहि सुनिश्चितम् .

ಅರ್ಜುನ ಉವಾಚ :-
ಸನ್ಯಾಸಂ ಕರ್ಮಣಾಂ ಕೃಷ್ಣ ಪುನಃ ಯೋಗಂ ಶಂಸಸಿ |
ಯತ್ ಶ್ರೇಯಃ ಏತಯೋಃ ಏಕಂ ತನ್ಮೇ ಬ್ರೂಹಿ ಸುನಿಶ್ಚಿತಮ್ || . ||

arjuna uvAcha :-
sanyAsaM karmaNAM kRuShNa punaH yOgaM cha shaMsasi |
yat shrEyaH EtayOH EkaM tanmE brUhi sunishchitam || 5.1 ||

Arjuna said:
O Krishna, you speak of Sanyasa of actions, and then you speak of Yoga; please tell me conclusively which one of the two is more beneficial.


श्री भगवान् उवाच :-
संन्यासः कर्मयॊगः निःश्रॆयसकरौ उभौ
तयॊः तु कर्मसंन्यासात् कर्मयॊगः विशिष्यतॆ .

ಶ್ರೀ ಭಗವಾನ್ ಉವಾಚ :-
ಸಂನ್ಯಾಸಃ ಕರ್ಮಯೋಗಃ ನಿಃಶ್ರೇಯಸಕರೌ ಉಭೌ |
ತಯೋಃ ತು ಕರ್ಮಸಂನ್ಯಾಸಾತ್ ಕರ್ಮಯೋಗಃ ವಿಶಿಷ್ಯತೇ || . ||

shree bhagavAn uvAcha :-
saMnyAsaH karmayOgaH cha niHshrEyasakarau ubhau |
tayOH tu karmasaMnyAsAt karmayOgaH vishiShyatE || 5.2 ||

The Lord said:
Renunciation and performance of duties both yield Heaven, but of these two, performance of duties excels renunciation in respect of duties.

(The word "karmasanyasa" has to be understood as karmani sanyasa, that is, renunciation in respect of duties, i.e., giving up of desires, attachments, etc. in respect of duties. Of these two complimentary portions of duties, performance is the better part of it, to which the aforesaid renunciation is helpful)


ज्ञॆयः सः नित्य-संन्यासी यः द्वॆष्टि काङ्क्षति
निर्द्वन्द्वः हि महाबाहॊ सुखं बन्धात् प्रमुच्यतॆ .

ಜ್ಞೇಯಃ ಸಃ ನಿತ್ಯ-ಸಂನ್ಯಾಸೀ ಯಃ ದ್ವೇಷ್ಟಿ ಕಾಂಕ್ಷತಿ |
ನಿರ್ದ್ವಂದ್ವಃ ಹಿ ಮಹಾಬಾಹೋ ಸುಖಂ ಬಂಧಾತ್ ಪ್ರಮುಚ್ಯತೇ || . ||

j~jEyaH saH nitya-saMnyAsee yaH na dvEShTi na kA~gkShati |
nirdvandvaH hi mahAbAhO sukhaM bandhAt pramuchyatE || 5.3 ||

He is to be understood to be always a sanyasin who neither hates nor loves; O the mighty-armed, indeed he who is free from the pairs of opposites is easily released from bondage.

Sanyasa in this context is eschewing of passions and not the particular way of life (ashrama) called sanyasa. Hence Arjuna is instructed not to abandon his duty of war.


सांख्य यॊगौ पृथक् बालाः प्रवदन्ति पण्डिताः
एकम् अपि अस्थितः संयक् उभयॊः विन्दतॆ फलम् .

ಸಾಂಖ್ಯ ಯೋಗೌ ಪೃಥಕ್ ಬಾಲಾಃ ಪ್ರವದಂತಿ ಪಂಡಿತಾಃ |
ಏಕಂ ಅಪಿ ಅಸ್ಥಿತಃ ಸಂಯಕ್ ಉಭಯೋಃ ವಿಂದತೇ ಫಲಮ್ || . ||

sAMkhya yOgau pRuthak bAlAH pravadanti na paNDitAH |
ekam api asthitaH saMyak ubhayOH vindatE phalam || 5.4 ||

The unintelligent say that Sankhya and Yoga are separate from each other; but the wise do not say so; he who properly follows even one of two courses, obtains the fruit of both.


यत् सांख्यैः प्राप्यतॆ स्थानं तत् यॊगैः अपि गम्यतॆ
एकं सांख्यं यॊगं यः पश्यति सः पश्यति .

ಯತ್ ಸಾಂಖ್ಯೈಃ ಪ್ರಾಪ್ಯತೇ ಸ್ಥಾನಂ ತತ್ ಯೋಗೈಃ ಅಪಿ ಗಮ್ಯತೇ |
ಏಕಂ ಸಾಂಖ್ಯಂ ಯೋಗಂ ಯಃ ಪಶ್ಯತಿ ಸಃ ಪಶ್ಯತಿ || . ||

yat sAMkhyaiH prApyatE sthAnaM tat yOgaiH api gamyatE |
ekaM sAMkhyaM cha yOgaM cha yaH pashyati saH pashyati || 5.5 ||

What goal is reached by those who have obtained wisdom, that same goal is attained even by those who follow the Yoga. He indeed sees the truth who perceives the courses of sankhya and yoga to be one.


संन्यासः अस्तु महाबाहॊ दुःखम् आप्तुम् अयॊगतः
यॊगयुक्तः मुनिः ब्रह्म चिरॆण अधिगच्छति .

ಸಂನ್ಯಾಸಃ ಅಸ್ತು ಮಹಾಬಾಹೋ ದುಃಖಂ ಆಪ್ತುಂ ಅಯೋಗತಃ |
ಯೋಗಯುಕ್ತಃ ಮುನಿಃ ಬ್ರಹ್ಮ ಚಿರೇಣ ಅಧಿಗಚ್ಛತಿ || . ||

saMnyAsaH astu mahAbAhO duHkham Aptum ayOgataH |
yOgayuktaH muniH brahma na chirENa adhigacChati || 5.6 ||

Further, O mighty armed, Sanyasa is hard to realize in the absence of Yoga; the sage united to Yoga without delay reaches Brahma


यॊग-युक्तः विशुद्ध-आत्मा विजित-आत्मा जित-इन्द्रियः
सर्व भूत आत्म भूतआत्मा कुर्वन् अपि लिप्यतॆ .

ಯೋಗ-ಯುಕ್ತಃ ವಿಶುದ್ಧ-ಆತ್ಮಾ ವಿಜಿತ-ಆತ್ಮಾ ಜಿತ-ಇಂದ್ರಿಯಃ |
ಸರ್ವ ಭೂತ ಆತ್ಮ ಭೂತ ಆತ್ಮಾ ಕುರ್ವನ್ ಅಪಿ ಲಿಪ್ಯತೇ || . ||

yOga-yuktaH vishuddha-AtmA vijita-AtmA jita-indriyaH |
sarva-bhUta Atma-bhUta-AtmA kurvan api na lipyatE || 5.7 ||

He who is joined to yoga (i.e., karma yoga), being of pure nature, has completely subdued the mind and restrained the senses, and finds that the Lord of all beings is his own Lord − he is not affected though doing karma

5.8, 5.9

नैव किञ्चित् करॊमि इति युक्तः मन्यॆत तत्त्ववित्
पश्यन् शृण्वन् स्पृशन् जिघ्रन् अश्नन् गच्छन् स्वपन् श्वसन् .

प्रलपन् विसृजन् गृह्णन् उन्मिषन् निमिषन् अपि
इन्द्रियाणि इन्द्रिय-अर्थॆषु वर्तन्त इति धारयन् .

ನೈವ ಕಿಂಚಿತ್ ಕರೋಮಿ ಇತಿ ಯುಕ್ತಃ ಮನ್ಯೇತ ತತ್ತ್ವವಿತ್ |
ಪಶ್ಯನ್ ಶೃಣ್ವನ್ ಸ್ಪೃಶನ್ ಜಿಘ್ರನ್ ಅಶ್ನನ್ ಗಚ್ಛನ್ ಸ್ವಪನ್ ಶ್ವಸನ್ || . ||

ಪ್ರಲಪನ್ ವಿಸೃಜನ್ ಗೃಹ್ಣನ್ ಉನ್ಮಿಷನ್ ನಿಮಿಷನ್ ಅಪಿ |
ಇಂದ್ರಿಯಾಣಿ ಇಂದ್ರಿಯ-ಅರ್ಥೇಷು ವರ್ತಂತ ಇತಿ ಧಾರಯನ್ || . ||

naiva ki~jchit karOmi iti yuktaH manyEta tattvavit |
pashyan shRuNvan spRushan jighran ashnan gacChan svapan shvasan || 5.8 ||

pralapan visRujan gRuhNan unmiShan nimiShan api |
indriyANi indriya-arthEShu vartanta iti dhArayan || 5.9 ||

He who is in the path of Yoga, and knows the truth (i.e., dependent nature of the soul), when he sees, hears, feels, smells, eats, walks, sleeps, breathes, talks, leaves, takes, raises the eyelids, or closes them, he should consider that the senses go to their objects, and think "I do nothing at all".

(He should conclusively perceive in his mind that his senses are under the direction of the Lord drawn to their several objects, and so he appears to be acting with his organs of sense and action. Such sanyasa has been called Yoga, and it leads to the highest bliss.)


ब्रह्मणि आधाय कर्माणि संगं त्यक्त्वा करॊति यः
लिप्यतॆ सः पापॆन पद्मपत्रं इव अम्भसा .१०

ಬ್ರಹ್ಮಣಿ ಆಧಾಯ ಕರ್ಮಾಣಿ ಸಂಗಂ ತ್ಯಕ್ತ್ವಾ ಕರೋತಿ ಯಃ |
ಲಿಪ್ಯತೇ ಸಃ ಪಾಪೇನ ಪದ್ಮಪತ್ರಂ ಇವ ಅಂಭಸಾ || .೧೦ ||

brahmaNi AdhAya karmANi saMgaM tyaktvA karOti yaH |
lipyatE na saH pApEna padmapatraM iva ambhasA || 5.10 ||

He who having renounced attachment and placed his actions in Brahman, does them, he is not affected by evil, just as the lotus leaf by water.


कायॆन मनसा बुद्ध्या कॆवलैः इन्द्रियैः अपि
यॊगिनः कर्म कुर्वन्ति संगं त्यक्त्वा आत्म शुद्धयॆ .११

ಕಾಯೇನ ಮನಸಾ ಬುದ್ಧ್ಯಾ ಕೇವಲೈಃ ಇಂದ್ರಿಯೈಃ ಅಪಿ |
ಯೋಗಿನಃ ಕರ್ಮ ಕುರ್ವಂತಿ ಸಂಗಂ ತ್ಯಕ್ತ್ವಾ ಆತ್ಮ ಶುದ್ಧಯೇ || .೧೧ ||

kAyEna manasA bud^dhyA kEvalaiH indriyaiH api |
yOginaH karma kurvanti saMgaM tyaktvA Atma shuddhayE || 5.11 ||

By means of body, mind, reason and by pure senses, Yogis too perform duties free from attachment, for the purification of the atman (mind)


युक्तः कर्मफलं त्यक्त्वा शान्तिम् आप्नॊति नैष्ठिकीम्
अयुक्तः कामकारॆण फलॆ सक्तः निबध्यतॆ .१२

ಯುಕ್ತಃ ಕರ್ಮಫಲಂ ತ್ಯಕ್ತ್ವಾ ಶಾನ್ತಿಮ್ ಆಪ್ನೋತಿ ನೈಷ್ಠಿಕೀಮ್ |
ಅಯುಕ್ತಃ ಕಾಮಕಾರೇಣ ಫಲೇ ಸಕ್ತಃ ನಿಬಧ್ಯತೇ || .೧೨ ||

yuktaH karmaphalaM tyaktvA shAntim ApnOti naiShThikeem |
ayuktaH kAmakArENa phalE saktaH nibadhyatE || 5.12 ||

He who abandoning the fruits of action (becoming a sanyasin as explained above), follows yoga, obtains the natural peace; he who destitute of yoga by force of desire attached to the result (limited consequences of action), is bound down (subject to endless sufferings of birth and death)


सर्वकर्माणि मनसा संन्यस्य आस्तॆ सुखं वशी
नवद्वारॆ पुरॆ दॆही एव कुर्वन् कारयन् .१३

ಸರ್ವಕರ್ಮಾಣಿ ಮನಸಾ ಸಂನ್ಯಸ್ಯ ಆಸ್ತೇ ಸುಖಂ ವಶೀ |
ನವದ್ವಾರೇ ಪುರೇ ದೇಹೀ ಏವ ಕುರ್ವನ್ ಕಾರಯನ್ || .೧೩ ||

sarvakarmANi manasA saMnyasya AstE sukhaM vashee |
navadvArE purE dEhee na eva kurvan na kArayan || 5.13 ||

Having renounced all actions by the mind, the dweller in the body who has control over the senses, remains happy in the city of nine gates (body), neither doing nor causing anybody else to do.

The consequences of action do not cling to him who is destitute of abhimana as pointed out above.


कर्तृत्वं कर्माणि लॊकस्य सृजति प्रभुः
कर्मफलसंयॊगं स्वभावः अस्तु प्रवर्ततॆ .१४

ಕರ್ತೃತ್ವಂ ಕರ್ಮಾಣಿ ಲೋಕಸ್ಯ ಸೃಜತಿ ಪ್ರಭುಃ
ಕರ್ಮಫಲಸಂಯೋಗಂ ಸ್ವಭಾವಃ ಅಸ್ತು ಪ್ರವರ್ತತೇ || .೧೪ ||

na kartRutvaM na karmANi lOkasya sRujati prabhuH
na karmaphalasaMyOgaM svabhAvaH astu pravartatE || 5.14 ||

The Jiva and its apparent master does not initiate any action nor has the power to attain independently the result of his action. The self existent (Lord) alone acts independently (at all times and in every aspect).


आदत्तॆ कस्यचित् पापं एव सुकृतं विभुः
अज्ञानॆन आवृतं ज्ञानं तॆन मुह्यन्ति जन्तवः .१५

ಆದತ್ತೇ ಕಸ್ಯಚಿತ್ ಪಾಪಂ ಏವ ಸುಕೃತಂ ವಿಭುಃ |
ಅಜ್ಞಾನೇನ ಆವೃತಂ ಜ್ಞಾನಂ ತೇನ ಮುಹ್ಯಂತಿ ಜಂತವಃ || .೧೫ ||

na AdattE kasyachit pApaM na cha eva sukRutaM vibhuH |
aj~jAnEna AvRutaM j~jAnaM tEna muhyanti jantavaH || 5.15 ||

The powerful one, that is, the absolute Lord does not accept the evil arising from any action, nor the merit. That is, the Lord is not affected by the consequences of any activity or action.
If there is a ruler who is everywhere and absolutely a free agent and doer of all, how is it that He is not seen by anybody? The latter half of the verse answers the question:
On account of the power of understanding being obstructed by nescience (ignorance), the jeevas do not know or see Him.


ज्ञानॆन तु तत् अज्ञानं यॆषां नाशितम् आत्मनः
तॆषाम् आदित्यवत् ज्ञानं प्रकाशयति तत् परम् .१६

ಜ್ಞಾನೇನ ತು ತತ್ ಅಜ್ಞಾನಂ ಯೇಷಾಂ ನಾಶಿತಮ್ ಆತ್ಮನಃ |
ತೇಷಾಮ್ ಆದಿತ್ಯವತ್ ಜ್ಞಾನಂ ಪ್ರಕಾಶಯತಿ ತತ್ ಪರಮ್ || .೧೬ ||

j~jAnEna tu tat aj~jAnaM yEShAM nAshitam AtmanaH |
tEShAm Adityavat j~jAnaM prakAshayati tat param || 5.16 ||

However to them of whom that ignorance is destroyed by the knowledge of Atman (Lord), to them alone wisdom like the sun shows that Supreme Being.


तत् बुद्धयः तत् आत्मानः तत् निष्ठाः तत् परायणाः
गच्छन्ति अपुनः आवृत्तिं ज्ञान-निर्धूत-कल्मषाः .१७

ತತ್ ಬುದ್ಧಯಃ ತತ್ ಆತ್ಮಾನಃ ತತ್ ನಿಷ್ಠಾಃ ತತ್ ಪರಾಯಣಾಃ |
ಗಚ್ಛಂತಿ ಅಪುನಃ ಆವೃತ್ತಿಂ ಜ್ಞಾನ-ನಿರ್ಧೂತ-ಕಲ್ಮಷಾಃ || .೧೭ ||

tat buddhayaH tat AtmAnaH tat niShThAH tat parAyaNAH |
gacChanti apunaH AvRuttiM j~jAna-nirdhUta-kalmaShAH || 5.17 ||

Those whose thought is on Him, to whom He is the Lord, who stand firm in Him, and for whom He is the highest goal - those absolved of all sins by force of wisdom, attain to the state of non-return.


विद्या-विनय-सम्पन्ने ब्राह्मणे गवि हस्तिनि
शुनि एव श्वपाके पण्डिताः समदर्शिनः .१८

ವಿದ್ಯಾ-ವಿನಯ-ಸಂಪನ್ನೆ ಬ್ರಾಹ್ಮಣೆ ಗವಿ ಹಸ್ತಿನಿ |
ಶುನಿ ಏವ ಶ್ವಪಾಕೆ ಪಂಡಿತಾಃ ಸಮದರ್ಶಿನಃ || .೧೮ ||

vidyA-vinaya-sampanne brAhmaNe gavi hastini |
shuni cha eva shvapAke cha paNDitAH samadarshinaH || 5.18 ||

In the brahmin who possesses complete knowledge and great humility, in the cow, in the elephant, in the dog, and in the out-caste, the learned are seers of the Equal

The brahmin (learned) and others are evidently of unequal fitness, but the Lord who pervades all beings is seen by the learned to be equal, to be absolutely same in respect of all the excellent attributes and in respect of absence of all defects.


इह एव तैः जितः सर्गः यॆषां साम्यॆ स्थितं मनः
निर्दॊषं हि समं ब्रह्म तस्मात् ब्रह्मणि तॆ स्थिताः .१९

ಇಹ ಏವ ತೈಃ ಜಿತಃ ಸರ್ಗಃ ಯೇಷಾಂ ಸಾಮ್ಯೇ ಸ್ಥಿತಂ ಮನಃ |
ನಿರ್ದೋಷಂ ಹಿ ಸಮಂ ಬ್ರಹ್ಮ ತಸ್ಮಾತ್ ಬ್ರಹ್ಮಣಿ ತೇ ಸ್ಥಿತಾಃ || .೧೯ ||

iha eva taiH jitaH sargaH yEShAM sAmyE sthitaM manaH |
nirdOShaM hi samaM brahma tasmAt brahmaNi tE sthitAH || 5.19 ||

Those who perceive Brahman, though present in all things, is always perfect, is unmixed with or unaffected by prakriti, obtain wisdom and thereby release in the very life in which such a vision has arisen.


प्रहृष्यॆत् प्रियं प्राप्य उद्विजॆत् प्राप्य अप्रियम्
स्थिरबुद्धिः असम्मूढः ब्रह्मवित् ब्रह्मणि स्थितः .२०

ಪ್ರಹೃಷ್ಯೇತ್ ಪ್ರಿಯಂ ಪ್ರಾಪ್ಯ ಉದ್ವಿಜೇತ್ ಪ್ರಾಪ್ಯ ಅಪ್ರಿಯಮ್ |
ಸ್ಥಿರಬುದ್ಧಿಃ ಅಸಮ್ಮೂಢಃ ಬ್ರಹ್ಮವಿತ್ ಬ್ರಹ್ಮಣಿ ಸ್ಥಿತಃ || .೨೦ ||

na prahRuShyEt priyaM prApya na udvijEt prApya cha apriyam |
sthirabuddhiH asammUDhaH brahmavit brahmaNi sthitaH || 5.20 ||

With settled thought, free from delusion, knowing Brahman and always contemplating Brahman, one should not be filled with exultation on coming by what is favorable (which leads to pleasure), nor become agitated on coming by what is unfavorable (which leads to pain or sorrow).


बाह्य स्पर्षॆषु असक्तात्मा विन्दति आत्मनि यत् सुखम्
सः ब्रह्मयॊग युक्तात्मा सुखम् अक्षयम् अश्नुतॆ .२१

ಬಾಹ್ಯ ಸ್ಪರ್ಷೇಷು ಅಸಕ್ತಾತ್ಮಾ ವಿಂದತಿ ಆತ್ಮನಿ ಯತ್ ಸುಖಮ್ |
ಸಃ ಬ್ರಹ್ಮಯೋಗ ಯುಕ್ತಾತ್ಮಾ ಸುಖಮ್ ಅಕ್ಷಯಮ್ ಅಶ್ನುತೇ || .೨೧ ||

bAhya sparShEShu asaktAtmA vindati Atmani yat sukham |
saH brahmayOga yuktAtmA sukham akShayam ashnutE || 5.21 ||

What blessedness he feels in his self whose mind is not entangled in the external contacts, he enjoys that blessedness as imperishable when his mind is given to the meditation on Brahman

That is,
Even in samsara the individual who is capable of practising the simple means of remembering the Lord and renouncing the attachment, becomes happy; then it is but natural that he who is practising the most efficacious means for contemplating the Lord, attains to Moksha and other blessed states and it is a certainty.


यॆ हि संस्पर्शजाः भॊगाः दुःखयॊनय एव तॆ
आद्यन्तवन्तः कौन्तॆय तॆषु रमतॆ बुधः .२२

ಯೇ ಹಿ ಸಂಸ್ಪರ್ಶಜಾಃ ಭೋಗಾಃ ದುಃಖಯೋನಯ ಏವ ತೇ |
ಆದ್ಯಂತವಂತಃ ಕೌಂತೇಯ ತೇಷು ರಮತೇ ಬುಧಃ || .೨೨ ||

yE hi saMsparshajAH bhOgAH duHkhayOnaya eva tE |
AdyantavantaH kauntEya na tEShu ramatE budhaH || 5.22 ||

Whatever enjoyments or pleasures that result from the contact of objects are all simply the source of misery, since these have a beginning and an end. O Kunti's son, the wise man does not take delight in them.


शक्नॊति इह एव यः सॊढुं प्राक् शरीर विमॊक्षनात्
कामक्रॊध उद्भवं वॆगं सः युक्तः सः सुखी नरः .२३

ಶಕ್ನೋತಿ ಇಹ ಏವ ಯಃ ಸೋಢುಂ ಪ್ರಾಕ್ ಶರೀರ ವಿಮೋಕ್ಷನಾತ್ |
ಕಾಮಕ್ರೋಧ ಉದ್ಭವಂ ವೇಗಂ ಸಃ ಯುಕ್ತಃ ಸಃ ಸುಖೀ ನರಃ || .೨೩ ||

shaknOti iha eva yaH sODhuM prAk shareera vimOkShanAt |
kAmakrOdha udbhavaM vEgaM saH yuktaH saH sukhee naraH || 5.23 ||

He who, while here alone (in the human body itself), that is, before leaving the body, able to beat up against the perturbation that arises from love or hate − he has yoga, he is the happy man

Hence it is clear that one should make every endeavor, after the moral strength, necessary for enduring the tempt of passions


यः अन्तः सुखः अन्तः आरामः तथा अन्तः ज्यॊतिः एव यः
सः यॊगी ब्रह्मनिर्वाणं ब्रह्मभूतः अधिगच्छति .२४

ಯಃ ಅಂತಃ ಸುಖಃ ಅಂತಃ ಆರಾಮಃ ತಥಾ ಅಂತಃ ಜ್ಯೋತಿಃ ಏವ ಯಃ |
ಸಃ ಯೋಗೀ ಬ್ರಹ್ಮನಿರ್ವಾಣಂ ಬ್ರಹ್ಮಭೂತಃ ಅಧಿಗಚ್ಛತಿ || .೨೪ ||

yaH antaH sukhaH antaH ArAmaH tathA antaH jyOtiH eva yaH |
saH yOgI brahmanirvANaM brahmabhUtaH adhigacChati || 5.24 ||

He who finds happiness within, who finds delight within, and who finds light within, only he the yogi, having taken his stand on Brahman goes to Brahman.


लभन्ते ब्रह्मनिर्वाणम् ऋषयः क्षीणकल्मषाः
छिन्न द्वैधा यतात्मानः सर्वभूतहितॆ रताः .२५

ಲಭಂತೆ ಬ್ರಹ್ಮನಿರ್ವಾಣಮ್ ಋಷಯಃ ಕ್ಷೀಣಕಲ್ಮಷಾಃ |
ಛಿನ್ನ ದ್ವೈಧಾ ಯತಾತ್ಮಾನಃ ಸರ್ವಭೂತಹಿತೇ ರತಾಃ || .೨೫ ||

labhante brahmanirvANam RuShayaH kSheeNakalmaShAH |
Chinna dvaidhA yatAtmAnaH sarvabhUtahitE ratAH || 5.25 ||

Cutting away from doubt and misapprehension, with the mind extended and controlled and bent upon seeking the good of all beings, the wise who are absolved of sins perceive the Brahman.


कामक्रॊध विमुक्तानां यतीनां यतचॆतसाम्
अभितः ब्रह्मनिर्वाणं वर्ततॆ विदित आत्मनाम् .२६

ಕಾಮಕ್ರೋಧ ವಿಮುಕ್ತಾನಾಂ ಯತೀನಾಂ ಯತಚೇತಸಾಮ್ |
ಅಭಿತಃ ಬ್ರಹ್ಮನಿರ್ವಾಣಂ ವರ್ತತೇ ವಿದಿತ ಆತ್ಮನಾಮ್ || .೨೬ ||

kAmakrOdha vimuktAnAM yateenAM yatachEtasAm |
abhitaH brahmanirvANaM vartatE vidita AtmanAm || 5.26 ||

For those who are free from love and hate, who are striving for it, and have restrained the mind and have known the Atman, Brahman is present at all times and in all places.

5.27, 5.28

स्पर्शान् कृत्वा बहिः बाह्यान् चक्षुः एव अन्तरॆ भ्रुवॊः
प्राण अपानौ समौ कृत्वा नासाभ्यन्तर चारिणौ .२७

यत इन्द्रिय मनः बुद्धिः मुनिः मॊक्ष परायणः
विगत इच्छा भय क्रॊधः यः सदा मुक्त एव सः .२८

ಸ್ಪರ್ಶಾನ್ ಕೃತ್ವಾ ಬಹಿಃ ಬಾಹ್ಯಾನ್ ಚಕ್ಷುಃ ಏವ ಅಂತರೇ ಭ್ರುವೋಃ |
ಪ್ರಾಣ ಅಪಾನೌ ಸಮೌ ಕೃತ್ವಾ ನಾಸಾಭ್ಯಂತರ ಚಾರಿಣೌ || .೨೭ ||

ಯತ ಇಂದ್ರಿಯ ಮನಃ ಬುದ್ಧಿಃ ಮುನಿಃ ಮೋಕ್ಷ ಪರಾಯಣಃ |
ವಿಗತ ಇಚ್ಛಾ ಭಯ ಕ್ರೋಧಃ ಯಃ ಸದಾ ಮುಕ್ತ ಏವ ಸಃ || .೨೮ ||

sparshAn kRutvA bahiH bAhyAn chakShuH cha eva antarE bhruvOH |
prANa apAnau samau kRutvA nAsAbhyantara chAriNau || 5.27 ||

yata indriya manaH buddhiH muniH mOkSha parAyaNaH |
vigata icChA bhaya krOdhaH yaH sadA mukta eva saH || 5.28 ||

Having made the external contacts purely external and fixed the sight only between the eyebrows, and having balanced praaNa apaana that are passing through the nostrils,

The contemplatist who intent upon release, has controlled his mind, reason and other senses, and who is always free from desire, fear and anger, he is certainly the released one.

In these two verses Lord Krishna describes the perfected method of meditation for achieving moksha or release from the material existence. The method commences by turning inward with the mind away from all external sense objects associated with sight, sound, taste, smell and touch. Then one fixes the vision internally between the eyebrows; simultaneously and slowly controlling the inhalation and exhalation; and pausing in between the two states, in kumbhaka.


भॊक्तारं यज्ञ तपसां सर्व लॊक महॆश्वरम्
सुहृदं सर्व भूतानां ज्ञात्वा मां शान्तिम् ऋच्छति .२९

ಭೋಕ್ತಾರಂ ಯಜ್ಞ ತಪಸಾಂ ಸರ್ವ ಲೋಕ ಮಹೇಶ್ವರಮ್ |
ಸುಹೃದಂ ಸರ್ವ ಭೂತಾನಾಂ ಜ್ಞಾತ್ವಾ ಮಾಂ ಶಾತಿಮ್ ಋಚ್ಛತಿ || .೨೯ ||

bhOktAraM yaj~ja tapasAM sarva lOka mahEshvaram |
suhRudaM sarva bhUtAnAM j~jAtvA mAM shAntim RucChati || 5.29 ||

Having known Me to be the One to whom all sacrifices and austerities are intended, the One great Ruler of all the worlds, the One benefactor of all beings, he achieves Me, the source of eternal peace and happiness.

Thus ends the FIFTH chapter of Sri Bhagavadgeeta, titled Sanyasa Yoga

~~ shree madhvEshArpaNamastu ~~