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Hari Sarvottama Vayu Jeevottama

A very warm welcome to the blog of Madhwa Brahmins community.
We, Madhwa Brahmins are followers of Jagadguru Sriman Madhwacharya. We originally hail from places in Karnataka and the neighboring states of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Our main dialects are Kannada, Tulu, Marathi, Telugu and Konkani.

A brief background of Jagadguru Sri Madhwacharya:

prathamO hanumAn nAma dviteeyO bheema Eva cha |
pUrNaprajna tRuteeyastu bhagavat kAryasAdhakaH ||

As the above shloka from khila vAyustuti explains, Sri Madhwacharya (also known by the names Poornaprajna and Anandateertha) is the third incarnation of Lord MukhyaprAna Vaayu, after Lord Hanuman and Lord Bheemasena. He is the chief proponent of TattvavAda, popularly known as Dvaita. He was born on Vijayadashami day of 1238 CE at Paajaka Kshetra, a small village near Udupi. He is the 22nd commentator on the Brahma sutras of Lord Sri Veda Vyasa.

Kindly note that this blog contains important topics discussed in our Orkut community and some articles on tattvavAda philosophy. All the topics can be found in the BLOG ARCHIVE (right side)

26 July, 2009

Aittareya Upanishad

By Mr. "R"

I will quote below some informtion from the following book.

Aitareya Upanishad by Tamaraparani Subachar Raghavendran, SMSO Sabha

1. Bhagavan Narayana took avatara in 'ItarA Devi' who was the wife of ViSAla, son of Chaturmukha Brahma. hence He was called 'Aitareya'. This Upanishad is called 'Aitareya Upanishad', because it was taught by ParamAtmA Aitareya rUpI.

2. In this Upanishad, Visnu's secret mahimAs are explained and He has great Aishwarya and so this is also called as 'MahAbhUti Sruti'. Further the Upanishad is also called as 'MahA Aiswarya Upanishad' because it deals in deatail about Shri Visnu who possesses MahA/unlimited Aiswaryas.

3. This upanishad beliongs to 'Rgveda'.

4. Rg-SamhitA says (don't know where, may be somebody can find this)

Idra killed VrtrAsura and to become Mahendra he performed 'MahAvrata' yAga. Just like for the yAga, ParamAtmA went as 'VAmana murty', ParamAtmA went as Aitareya to this yAga of Indra. When ParamAtma so visited, all the devatAs, BrAhmanAs, and others lost their balance, because of His unique and extraordinary tejas. They were spell bound in utter astonishment. At that time, Chaturmukha Brahma, jIvottama, extolled ParamAtma Aitareya. Then Aitareya ParamAtma did upadesa to Chaturmukha Brahma, Rudra, Indra and other devatas. Then they all became His servants/sevakas/dasas. Since they all who are eligible to be worshiped became His dasas, Aitereya ParamAtma is called as 'MahidAsa'.

5. Rg-SamhitA states about the other name of this Upanishad. (I could NOT find the mantra in Rg-SamhitA)

mahAbhUtishshrutissaishAM mahAbhUtiryato hariH |
visheshheNAtra kathitaH sarvaGYAH shAshvataH prabhuH

yataH = where; hariH = Lord Hari; mahAbhUtiH = greatest wealth; sa = that; eshhAM = work like this; mahAbhUtiH shrutiH = (is to be called) mahAbhUti shruti; visheshheNa = especially; atra = here; prabhuH = the Lord; kathitaH = described as; sarvaGYAH = omniscient; shAshvataH = eternal being;

More information can be found here...


For this Upanishad, MahIdAsa BhagawAn is the DevatA and also the prominent Rishi. Chaturmukha BrahmA is the next Rishi. Chandas can be calculated by counting the letters.

I am stating the above, because I have heard of a warning that one should not learn Vedic mantras and Upanishads without knowing the DevatA, Rishi and Chandas. I will continue posting as I get time.


@ Rkan

Chandas can be calculated by counting the letters.

what is chandas ??? can u pls explain it ???


it is chhanda. (pronounced as CHHA like used in chhatri and da in damayanti)
in every song the last word, alphabet matches with previous line (known as yamak). letters (devnagari-sanskrit scipt alphabets) in each line decide the chhanda of that line. if a poem is written in particuler chhanda then mostly the no. of alphabets is same for all lines.


what is chandas ??? can u pls explain it ???

I have no idea, as I did not learn Sanskrit. May be somebody with the knowledge can explain.

I am just quoting from the book which I got recently. I like the author's style to explain clearly in simple language. The author's father is said to be a great Madhva scholar who has written good commentaries.


Any work begins with Mangalacharanam. So Srimadacharya too begins Aitareya Bhashya with MangalAcharanam.

nArAyaNaM nikhilapUrNaguNaikadehaM sarvajnamachyutamapetasamasthadosham
prAnasya sarvajithajitaparamEshvarasya sAkshAdadhIshvarabhiyaM sharanam ramesham ||

nArAyaNaM sAkshAd sharanam = Acharya directly pays his homage to nArAyaNa, unlike others.

nikhilapUrNaguNaikadehaM = nArAyaNa is full of unlimited auspicious attributes unmeasurable even by mahAlakshmi. He does NOT possess prAkrita gunas.

sarvajnam = Omniscient

apetasamasthadosham = nArAyaNa has no defects.

achyutam = mans satyam. His qualities are NOT tatastha (temporary) as adwaita claims. He is Nirguna in the snese that His attributes do NOT have any nexus with Satwa, Rajas or Tamas, i.e. prAkrita gunas. He has in reality unlimited most wonderful, unique auspicious aprAkrita attributes.

sarvajitha ajitha paramEshvarasya adhishvarabhiyam = Narayana is the Master of MukhyaprAna directly and that MukhyaprAna is the Ishvara of all chetanas and achetanas of the Universe.

RameEsham = Master/husband of MahAlakshmi

Sri Raghavendra Swami also writes his own mangalAcharanam.

Om Shri Gurubhyo namah

Om SHri Raghavendaraya namah.

All errors if any is due to my ignorance.

eSah panthAh | etat karma | etat brahma | etat satyam | tasmat na pramAdhEt | tanna atIyAt | na hyatyAyan pUrvE | ye atyAyan te parA babhUvuh || 2-1-1 of Aitareya Aranyaka ||

This Aitareya Sruti has been started to bestow Moksha to the jIvas. Moksha can attained only as the prasAda of Shri Hari. PrasAda can be attained only by the attainment or by the acquisition of knowledge of paramAtmA. That knowledge is only possible by doing upAsanA/vichAra about Him. Therefore to start with, in the very beginning, it is stated here about 'Brahma upAsanA' by the Sabdas, 'eSah panthAh'

eSah = This Sankarshana rUpI BhagawAn Visnu (or Purushottama)

panthAh = is the way or means to reach Him.

For the sabda 'eSah' which is a pronoun, no explicit reference to this word is seen from the earlier context. So AchArya=A states that this word merges with the popular word 'panthAh'. So the commentary explains that only HE, BhagawAn Purushottama, is the way and source.

ParamAtmA is established sAdhanA. SAdhanAs are of two kinds.

1. Siddha:
This is already established, like the cooked rice. All we have to do is eat it.

2. Asiddha: This is established only on completion of a task, like the yAgas. They are like uncooked rice.

The mantra 'eSah panthAh' says ParamAtma is the settled path. Without Him, all other paths are of no use and jIva will NOT attain Moksha. In the sUtra 1:1:1 'AUm athAto BrahmaJignasa Aum' enquiry or upAsanA of Visnu is to be done to obtain Moksha. No adhikAri will induge in any work without proper prayojana. The word 'atah' denotes the greatest phalA through Brahmajignasa. Similarly 'eSah panthAh' also denotes the same phalA aspect.

The prasAdA of BhagawAn being inevitable for Moksha is given in the following Sutra as well.

Aum pareṇa ca śabdasya tādvidhyaṃ bhūyastvāt tv anubandhaḥ Aum (3:3:54)

pareṇa ca = By ParamAtmA only, His darshanA/Aparoksha JnAnA is attained, which is one step before Moksha.

The mantra 'eSah panthAh' also means the same.


etat karma = This Aniruddha rUpI BhagawAn is called as 'Karma', because HE is 'kartA' for all the jagat in respect to creation, protection, sustenance, regulation etc. He knows all and everything. Therefore He is called as 'Karma'.

Further in some places it is apparently said that by Karmas alone Moksha is attained.

For example Bhagavat Gita states that

karmaṇaiva hi saḿsiddhim āsthitā janakādayaḥ (Bhagavad Gita 3:20)

By doing karmas, Janaka and others attained Moksha.

If it is Karmas alone that leads one to Moksha, prasAdA becomes redundant and useless. To show that it is NOT so, the upanishad says 'etat karma'.

One can also recollect the Shlokah from Bhagavat Gita which says

brahmārpaṇaḿ brahma havir brahmāgnau brahmaṇā hutam
brahmaiva tena gantavyaḿ brahma-karma-samādhinā (Bhagavad Gita 4:24)

For him (buddhimān as given in 4:18), Brahman is the act of offering, Brahman is the oblation, Brahman is the sacrificial fire,by Brahman is the offering made, Brahman, verily, is the goal to be attained by the acts of equanimity of intellect in Brahman.

vedāhaḿ samatītāni vartamānāni cārjuna
bhaviṣyāṇi ca bhūtāni māḿ tu veda na kaścana (Bhagavad Gita 7:26)

Arjuna, I know the beings that are of past, that are in the present, and even those yet to come. But no one knows Me.

So when the word karma is taken as kartrtvAt, mAtrtvAt and SarvajnatvAt which is present in Shri Visnu alone, then it is consistent with the Upanishad and Brahma Sutra meanings and also with other verses in Gita.

etat Brahma = This vAsudevaa rUpI ParamAtmA is called as 'Brahma' Who is full of auspicious attributes.

etat satyam = That Visnu has NO defects at all

For PramAtmA, the lakshanas are told as 'Brahma' and as 'Satya'. Adwaita states that there is no Ishwara other than jIva. For jIva, it is always proved that he is as 'I'. hence there is no need to inquire about Brahman at all. This is the objection made out by that school. To refute the same, the lakshanas of that person to be inquired are given, which would take away the jIva from the scope and ambit.

In order to be fit for the inquiry, the vastu is said to be without defects and possessing infinite auspicious attributes. There is no use inquiring about a person with only a little attributes. To establish the infinite auspicious attributes in an unlimited way, Jagat-janmAdikartrtva is attributed to Him.

He is called as Karma because He is the doer/creator of all and He is the destroyer/swallower of all (karmeti kartrtvAt layakartrtvAt cha karma).

When Visnu alone has to be enquired into, then would the upAsanA of other devatAs be redundant and a waste. This is NOT so. UpAsanA for devatAs should NOT be done as 'Sarvajna' or 'Sarvottama', but they can be inquired as sevakas or dasas of Shri Hari.


tasmAt na pramAdhet: Hence that paramAtmA cannot be forgotten even for a fraction of a second by the devotee.

The memory of Visnu should always be there. The forgetfulness of Him should never take place even for a second. All other prohibitions, injunctions, orders, mandates in the SAstras are only servants of this goal.

tanna atIyAt: Leaving that Brahma, others should NOT be approached. Howothers have to be left off, is dealt with in a detailed way in the last adhyAya. Brahma should NOT be (attempted upon to be) surpassed.

na hyatyAyan pUrvE: For the reason, our predecessors (those who preceded us in creation), MahAlakshmi, Chaturmukhabrahma, Rudra and others did NOT supersede or surpass that Visnu. Therefore he should NOT be surpassed or neglected.

Visnu should should be meditated upon as Sarvottama. All other devatAs should be the subject matter of upAsanA only as His servants/sevakas. They should NOT be thought of or inquired into as exceeding Shri Visnu. In order ot establish this truth, the consent or path of earlier predecessors is shown as stating 'na hyatyAyan pUrvE'.

What will be the damage when Visnu is (attempted to be) superseeded or surpassed ? This is stated as follows in the Upanishad.

ye atyAyan te parA babhUvuh: Whoever tries to surpass/supersede Him, will surely be defeated. That means, they will fall in the eternal hell called andhatamas. But those who did NOT try to surpass Him, like Chaturmukha Brahma and others, got rid of the prAkrita Sambandha and obtained Moksha, eternal bliss.

continuing verse 2-1-1 from the Upanishad

taduktam Rishina-----| prajaá ha tisró atyaáyamiiyuH nyaànyaá arkám abhíto vivishre |
bRhád dha tasthau bhúvaneSvantáH | pávamaano harítaH aávivesha || iti || [from Rk-SamhitA 8:101:14]

How many kinds of jIvas are there who transgressed or disobeyed Visnu in their activities and how many have obeyed and carried out His mandates.

Upanishad in its statement, supports itself from the authorities as 'taduktam iti'

taduktam Rishina = The answer to this question is given by the MantradrashtA MahidAsa Himself.

Whoever tries to excel Visnu, would surely be defeated and whoever obeys Him would surely be rewarded, has been told by Rishi Hayagriva rUpI ParamAtmA Himself. This reply consists of four pAdas. Their meaning is given in this mantra from the Upanishad.

First pAda: prajaá ha tisró atyaáyamiiyuH

For the above part of the mantra the Upanishad gives the following meaning.

ya vai tAH emAH prajAH tisraH atyAyamAyan | tAnImAni vayAMsi vangAvagadhASca erapAdAH |

tisraH prajAH atyAyam Ayan yAh tAH emAH vai =
Those three persons who have disobeyed and tried to supersede Sri Visnu, are those who are listed by Mantradrashtas.

tAni emAni vayAMsi vangAvagadhASca IrapAdAH = They are

(i) vayAMsi = ghosts, they are called as 'vayAMsi' because they all traverse in the air/in the sky.

(ii) vangAvagadhAH = rAkshasas.

Human beings are called as 'vangAH' because they have knowledge which can be created by others. These human beings are always treated as food by the rAkshasas and they try to save them by eating human beings. So they are called as 'vangAvagadhAH'.

(iii) IrapAdAH = asuras.

IraH means Sri vAyudeva. pAdaH means one fourth.

Sri vAyudeva is the very swarUpa of (a) dharma (b) knowledge (c) VairAgya and (d) AIswarya. In them, one guna (1/4th), namely aiswarya alone asuras possess. So these asuras are called as 'IrapAdAH'.

Second pAda

nyaànyaá arkám abhíto vivishre

For the above pAda quoted in the Upanishad, the Upanishad gives the following meaning.

ta imAH prajA arkám abhíto vivishtAh | imameva agnim

tAh imAH prajAH
= The human beinhs who are popular and known as 'best human beings' - 'manishyotthamAH' are totally different from others.

arkám imam agnim eva abhítaH vivishtAh = Because IT is worshipped well, it is called 'Arka' which means 'Agni' - i.e. Visnu who is presen inside Agni, and in Him as per their respective status, by mind, entered in Him. This means they did upAsanA of Visnu as per their capacity. They did homas in Agni and pleased paramAtmA and finally reached Visnu who is the antaryamin in Agni.

Third pAda

bRhád dha tasthau bhúvaneSvantáH

For the above third pAda quoted in the Upanishad, the Upanishad gives the following meaning.

adaH u eva bRhát | bhúvaneSvantáH asau AdityaH |

asau eva, adaH u bhúvaneSu antáH AdityaH bRhát
= This Visnu Himself is fully pervading in the form of tejas in all the worlds inside.

That Visnu only is called as AdityaH :- This is because He keeps all the aarticles or creatures and everybody under His absolute control. Hence, He is there - inside SUrya, with the name Aditya. This Visnu is the subject of Upasana for the rshis by Veda adhyayana as per their respective capacities. They do upAsanA of Shri Visnu in this manner.

Fourth pAda

pávamaano harítaH aávivesha || iti ||

For the above fourth pAda quoted in the Upanishad, the Upanishad gives the following meaning.

vAyureva pavamAnaH dhiSau HaritaH AvishtaH

vAyuH eva = vaH = balaM, AyuH
= Having strength and knowledge as His SwarupA, Visnu resides in Shri vAyu, So He is called as 'vAyu'. He is also called as pavamAna because

pava = making clean out of samsAra

mAnaH = immersing in supreme happiness. So Visnu is called as 'pavamAna'.

(saH) harítaH dhiSau aáviStaH = He has entered in all directions. DevatAs did upAsanA of Him in their minds.

So the summary is

(1.) Ghosts, rAkshasAs and asuras are the three kinds who are wicked. and they have transgressed BhagawAn. This means they disobey and act against the Will of BhagawAn and are wicked and crooked. They reach andhatamas or eternal hells.

(2.) Other than them, there are three kinds. They are

(a.) ManushyottamAh: They do upAsanA of Visnu who is present in Agni and then reach Moksha.

(b.) Rishis: They do upAsanA of Visnu who is present in sUrya and then reach Moksha.

(b.) Devatas: They do upAsanA of Visnu who is present in every direction and then reach Moksha.

Uktha VidyA - Aitareya Aranyaka 2-1-2

In the earlier khanda, first khanda, by the sabda 'Brahma' it was shown that He is full and complete with all auspicious attributes. None can surpass or supersede Him, and by this He is established as Sarvottama.

In order that it would be applicable to Him, it was shown that He is the creator of the Universe, by the word 'Karma'. He is also the swallower of Jagath and enjoyer of the same. To establish these, with authorities, in this khanda, His adhidaiva and adhyatma forms are described here.

Upanishad says

uktham uktham ithi vai prajA vadanti | tadidameva uktham |

Learned people say about a vastu that it creates the jagat, that it creates the jagat, like that they speak about a vastu.

(Since it is told in the Vedas many times, to indicate that, it is repeated twice here.)

vai = This is authentic and popular

tat uktham idam eva = That vastu which creates the jagat, is this Visnu ONLY, but NOT others. This means that Visnu only is the independent cause of this world, and NOt others. If Prakrti and others are taken into account by Him, in the process of creation, it is only to help them and do anugraha to them and others. Definitely it does NOT mean that Visnu is in need of them. In the sUtra 2-1-15 Aum tadananyatvam ārambhaṇaśabdādibhyaḥ Aum, all these uissues are fully covered and Shri Visnu alone is the independent cause is established. He does NOT take help from others, but does so only to help them.

sUtra 2-1-16 Aum bhāve copalabdheḥ Aum also states that in all the agamas, there is none other than Visnu who is seen as the independent cause of the Jagat.

Great and reputed human bengs of high order and devatAs, say like this. That Visnu is the creator of jagat, that Visnu is the creator of jagat. Here 'BrahatIsahasra' is NOT meant. 'BrahatIsahasra' also denotes Shri Visnu, and therefore that name applied to Him. But here, the reason and the very fundation for which a sabda denotes is being discussed.

All the Sabdas denote Visnu primarily. How ? Because, He is the creator, protector etc. of Jagat. This is based on the anumAna which follows from second aphorism.

Shri vAyu cannot be denoted as 'uktham' because he is NOT independent. So he can create only those who are below him in gradation. So this 'uktham' - the attribute of creation of jagat applies ONLY to Shri Visnu.

Upanishad says

iyameva pRthivI | itho hi idam sarvam uttishtati yadidaM kiM cha | tasya agniH arkaH | annam ashItayaH | annena hi idaM sarvaM ashnute |

In order to do upansanA of Shri Visnu, it is now told about the devatAs, and the bodies of us in which the rrUpas reside. Their places, vehicles and anna (food) are described.

iyam uktham = idaM eva pRthivI = being in the Earth and being very popular, being called 'pRthivI' - and that Visnu is the creator of Jagat.

ParamAtmA wh is called Visnu, that Brahma alone is the creator of Jagat. In order that the jnAnins can do upAsanA of His rUpas with special attributes, (i) their abodes (ii) their vehicles and (iii) their food are shown separately.

hi itaH yat kiM cha idaaM sarvaM uttishtati (tat) = Since even the smallest and negligible grass etc. grow on the Earth, due to Him, Visnu is called 'uktha' who is present in the Earth.

tasya agniH arkaH = For that Visnu who is present in the Earth, fire is His vehicle.

Since Garuda flies fast, it is called 'Arka'. In Yajnas, the bricks are arranged and placed. So that is called as Arka. Tis is like PratimA of Garuda. That Garuda is available in the fire as well. That Garuda is the vehicle of Shri Visnu is well known. Since Garuda who is resent in Agni and brick structure is like Garuda, Agni is told as His vehicle.

athvA = or else

The rUpa of ParaAtmA who is present in Agni and is called Agni, is the vehicle of Visnu ho is on the Earth. Since Agni rUpa parmAtmA is the swifter than the swiftest moving object, and is present in Garuda and is having garuda rUpa and that Bhagavat rUpa is the vehicle. One Bhagavat rUpa is caaried by another Bhagavat rUpa, as a vehicle.

(tasya) annam ashItayaH = For that Visnu, the food is that BrhataIsahasra consisting of 1000 Rks. Just like food satisfies us, this sacred bRhatIsahasra satisfies (i.e. He grants us our desires) BhagawAn. Food is having Chandra as devatA, so also bRhatIsahasra has Chandra as the devatA.

annena hi idaM sarvaM ashnute = All these creatures by taking the food-anna, satisfy their desires. They enjoy their woves, chidlren, houses etc. etc. 'hi' = This is certain, since a person in total starvation cannot enjoy conforts and any happiness.

Since all the bhogas are reached by these great mantras, bRhataIsahasra, it is called as 'Annam'.


It is a collection of 1000 hymns from RgVeda. The hymns in gAyatrI, bRhatI and Ushnik mantras are three. There are 720 hymns like this and with this, another 280 hymns are added at the beginning to make the total as 1000 hymns. The total number of syllables is 36000.

A set of eighty hymns is called as 'ashIti'. A set of eighty, each consisting of three hymns are taken and making a total to 80 x 3 = 240 hymns. 240 x 3 =720 hymns. (with another 280 hymns added at the end to make it 1000).

antarikshaMeva uktham | antarikshaM va anupatanti | antarikshaManudhavayanti | tasya vAyuH arkaH | annam ashItayaH | annena hi idaM sarvaM ashnute

antarikshaMeva uktham =
That which is present in the sky as well as that which is seen by the eligible in our hearts, is the Bhagavat rUpa called as 'antarikshaM'.

That rUpa is called as 'uktham' namely creator of jagat. Due to paramAtmA present in the dpace or Akasha, the hollowness of space is attained, and because of this only, the birds are able to fly.

antarikshaMeva uktham = Due to Him only the human beings are able to drive horses, bulls, etc. using them in the carts.

Space getting its property of hollowness is NOT automatic, but it is said here to be imparted by Him (Does this hold true for other objects, like the jIvAtmA, particularly satva, rajas and tamasika classification ? Somebody can answer this perhaps). This is splendidly brought out in the sutra

Aum ākāśas talliṅgāt Aum

In tAtparya Chandrika, it is said

This is the will of the Lord that the space has hollowneess, for otherwise, if He wills the other way, then the space would become dense and thick.

tasya vAyuH arkaH = For that Shri hari in the space, vAyu is the vAhana (vehicle).

That is the Bhagavat rUpa which is present in vAyu, and is called as Vayu, is the vAhana for Shri Visnu who is in the space (antariksha).

(tasya) annam ashItayaH = For that Visnu, the anna is BrhatIsahasra.

annena hi idaM sarvaM ahsnute = Due to the anna taken only, all the creatures enjoy their pleasures. hi = This is certain and seen by perception. Like that Shri Hari enjoys by that BrhatIshasra.

asAveva dyauh uktham | amutaH prdhAnAt hi idaM sarvaM uttishtati | yadidaM kiM cha | tasya asau Adityo arkaH | annam ashItayaH | annena hi idaM sarvaM ashnute | iti adhidaivatam |

asau dyauH eva uktham =
That Bhagavat rUpa which is in Swarga an which shines well, is one which creates the world.

dyotanAt dyuH paramAtmA shrihariH = ParamAtmA is called 'Dyu' because He shines well. As a matter of fact, all the shining objects in the world and anywhere, is only due to His shining. The two sUtras

Aum anukṛtes tasya ca Aum | BBs_1,3.21 |
Aum api smaryate Aum | BBs_1,3.22 |

clearly establish the shining of all objects is due to Shri Hari.

hi amutaH prdhAnAt hi idaM sarvaM uttishtati = This is because, due to Bhagavat rUpa which is available in Swarga, gives us the rains. Due to rains only, all the articles which are worth to be mentioned grow up.

tasya asau AdityaH arkaH = For that Bhagawat rUpa which is in heaven or Swarga, this sUrya becomes the vehicle.

The Bhagawat rUpa which has the name 'Aditya' is the vAhana for the Bhagawat rUpa present in Swarga. One rUpa supports and the other rUpa is supported.

annam ashItayaH = For that Dyu (i.e. BhagawAn), the food is BrhatIsahasra.

annena hi idaM sarvaM ashnute = Only after consuming the food, anna, all the creatures are able to satisfy their wants. This is certain and it is the truth.

Like that SHri Hari enjoys and is satisfied by BrhatIsahsra (i.e. He fulfills our desires).

adhidaivatam iti = With these, the rUpas of paramAtmA available in the devatAs come to an end.

Here also, the sabda 'antariksha' only denotes, i.e. primarily and predominantly denotes paramAtmA.

Only by His support, the brds fly, the human beings also move, make horses to rum on the ground etc.

Due to paramAtmA present in Swarga, the rains pour down, and all plants grow, as HE is the creator of all.

atha adhyAtmam | Purusha eva uktham | ayamevaM mahAn prajApatiH | ahaM ukthaM asmIti vidyAt | tasya mihameva uktham | yathA pRhivI tahA | tasya vAk arkaH | annam ashItayaH | annena hi idaM sarvaM ashnute |

atha adhyAtmaM =
After having explained the Bhagawat rUpas in the devatAs, now starts the explanation of Bhagawat rUpas that are available in the body, and they are supreme and they only create the jagat. The Sabda 'atha' is indicative of auspiciousness 'athashabdaH mangalArthakaH'. This is because a devotee can see BhagawAn in his body itself and need NOT go anywhere else to see Him. He is in our body itself in many many rUpas. If one is able to feel and realize paramAtmA, then it would be most auspicious to him, the devotee.

Purusha eva uktham = That Visnu resides in our body and is called as 'Purusha'.


It is only the Visnu who resides in the city (pura) called the body is known as 'Purusha'.

He is supreme and above all (uktham). None is above Him.

That is why Bhagawat gItA says

dvāv imau puruṣau loke kṣaraś cākṣara eva ca | kṣaraḥ sarvāṇi bhūtāni kūṭa-stho 'kṣara ucyate |

In this world, there are two kinds of Purushas, the perishable and imperishable. Perishable creatures comprise all the beings and the Akshara, which is unchanging is Sri or Lakshmi Devi (Prakrti abhimani). (Since Lakshmi Devi is repository of all conscious and unconscious entities, She is called as kootastha, i.e. heap.)

uttamaḥ puruṣas tv anyaḥ paramātmety udāhṛtah ̣| yo loka-trayam āviśya bibharty avyaya īśvaraḥ( Bhagawat gItA 15:16-17)

The most exalted (Supreme) person is different from both Ksara and Aksara and is described as Paramatman, the Supreme Lord. He entering the three worlds, sustains them and is the Imperishable Ruler.

That uttama Purusha is paramAtmA. Then why NOT call the jIva as Purusha or Mukhyaprana residing in us as Purusha?

This Purusha - ParamAtmA only is Sarvottama. Why is HE sarvottama? This is because HE is prajApatiH - i.e. He is the master of Chaturmukha Brahma and all jIvas.

ayaM purushaH eva mahAn = Sarvottama |(as mentioned above)

kutaH ? prajApatiH = prajAnAM patiH janmAdhikartrtvAt |

Purusha - ParamAtmA remains in the bodies of the parents and HE is the only person responsible for creation or generation of creatures and so HE is called as 'uktha'.

Therefore, (eSaH = this PurushanAmaka BhagawAn), ahaM ukthaM asmi iti vidyAt = I am the person who has t be understood and who alone should be the main object of knowledge (JneyaH) and is eligible to be known. Not others.

tasya mukameva ukthaM =His mouth itself is called as 'uktham'.

The avayavas (limbs) of paramAtmA are said to be 'uktham'. His mouth itself creates jagat. The sabda 'eva (only)' indicates the limb or avayava. Mouth is also 'avayavi', i.e. full body for paramAtmA and this is indicated by 'eva (only)' .

This can be seen under the sUtra

Aum māntravarṇikameva ca gīyate Aum | BBs_1,1.16 |

where it is said:

Due to His achintya aiswarya Sakti, there is nothing to be thought of as contradictory in His case at all.

(Further under 2-1-7 mantra of this Upanishad, it will be seen that the Earth as well as fire have been created out of His mouth).

After having told, that Shri Hari who is called as Purusha is the creator, then, not only Shri Hari, but also His limbs are also called as 'Uktham'. It starts from the mouth onwards.

Mouth is called as the creator because it creates fire.

yathA pRthivI tathA =Earlier it was said that while dealing with adhidaiva that Earth alias bhUmi alias pRthivI as 'uktham'. Likewise (yathA....tathA) here, that Purusha's mouth is called as 'uktham'.

tasya vAk arkaH = For that 'Uktha' - i.e. 'the mouth' of Shri Hari, Agni, who is the presiding deity is the vAhana.

annam ashItayaH = Food is BrhatIsahasra as told earlier.

annena hi idaM sarvaM ashnute = Only after consuming the food, anna, all the creatures are able to satisfy their wants. This is certain and it is the truth.

Like that SHri Hari enjoys and is satisfied by BrhatIsahsra (i.e. He fulfills our desires).

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